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Trove of ‘super-deep’ diamonds from Earth’s core discovered

Scientists have found a trove of “super-deep” diamonds from hundreds of miles below the Earth’s surface.

The diamonds were found in the Juina area of Brazil and likely came from a depth of 255 miles to 410 miles, according to an international team of researchers.  A volcanic eruption brought the rocks to the surface, The Independent reports.

‘JURASSIC WORLD’ DISCOVERED UNDER AUSTRALIA

Westlake Legal Group DiamondsBrazil Trove of 'super-deep' diamonds from Earth's core discovered James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/brazil fox-news/science/planet-earth/geology fox news fnc/science fnc article 3451b36d-1cfb-5fa0-b214-74187c3bb553

Diamonds from Brazil’s Juina area. (Graham Pearson)

The results of the scientists’ research are published in the journal Science.

“We analyzed, for the first time, helium isotopes contained in microscopic bubbles inside the super-deep diamonds,” said research leader Suzette Timmerman, of the Australian National University, in a statement.

STUNNING IMAGE OF RARE VOLCANIC LIGHTNING CAPTURED BY GERMAN PHOTOGRAPHER: ‘IT WAS A SCARY MOMENT

Researchers say that the isotopes support the idea of a “primordial” reservoir of molten rock that has been around since, or very soon after, the Earth was formed.

“Diamonds form perfect capsules so they retain the exact chemistry and the isotope composition of material from the part of the Earth where they formed,” said the study co-author, Lynton Jaques, of the Australian National University. “These diamonds in particular are some of our deepest direct samples of the Earth. They allow us to see some original material from the formation of the Earth, that doesn’t seem to have changed much over the past four billion years.”

VACATIONING SCHOOLTEACHER FINDS 2.12-CARAT BROWN DIAMOND AT ARKANSAS STATE PARK

Timmerman will present the research findings at the Geochemical Society and the European Association of Geochemistry’s Goldschmidt conference in Barcelona on Aug. 23.

In the U.S., a vacationing schoolteacher recently garnered plenty of attention when he found a 2.12-carat brown diamond at the Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas.

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The Crater of Diamonds State Park lets visitors search for real diamonds in their original volcanic source.

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

Westlake Legal Group DiamondsBrazil Trove of 'super-deep' diamonds from Earth's core discovered James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/brazil fox-news/science/planet-earth/geology fox news fnc/science fnc article 3451b36d-1cfb-5fa0-b214-74187c3bb553   Westlake Legal Group DiamondsBrazil Trove of 'super-deep' diamonds from Earth's core discovered James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/brazil fox-news/science/planet-earth/geology fox news fnc/science fnc article 3451b36d-1cfb-5fa0-b214-74187c3bb553

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Extremely rare 1894 dime once owned by Jerry Buss sells for $1.3M

An extremely rare 1894 dime, one of only 24 minted and once owned by former Lakers owner Jerry Buss, has sold at auction for $1.32 million, including the buyer’s commission.

Only nine of the rare 1894-S dimes are known to exist, according to the auction house Stack’s Bowers Galleries. The dime was auctioned Thursday at the American Numismatic Association World’s Fair of Money in Chicago.

EXTREMELY RARE 1894 DIME EXPECTED TO SELL FOR OVER $1M

Westlake Legal Group Dime1894Split Extremely rare 1894 dime once owned by Jerry Buss sells for $1.3M James Rogers fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 7eb179db-3afc-5f4f-bcb2-a0465ca69e4a

The 1894-S dime is one of only 24 that were minted. (Stack’s Bowers Galleries)

The coin was once owned by the late Buss, who in addition to being the former owner of the Los Angeles Lakers, was also an avid collector of rare coins.

In 2016, an 1894-S dime sold for $2 million at a Florida auction.

SCHOOLKIDS DISCOVER 1,600-YEAR-OLD GOLD COIN

Westlake Legal Group Dime18942 Extremely rare 1894 dime once owned by Jerry Buss sells for $1.3M James Rogers fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 7eb179db-3afc-5f4f-bcb2-a0465ca69e4a

Front of the 1894-S dime. (Stack’s Bowers Galleries)

A rare 1876 20-cent piece was also auctioned at the Chicago event, selling for $456,000. First issued in 1875, 20-cent coins are described by Stack’s Bowers Galleries as “a one-year wonder.”

Westlake Legal Group Dime1894 Extremely rare 1894 dime once owned by Jerry Buss sells for $1.3M James Rogers fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 7eb179db-3afc-5f4f-bcb2-a0465ca69e4a

Front of the 1894-S dime, (Stack’s Bowers Galleries)

Some 10,000 20-cent pieces were minted by the Carson City Mint in 1876 but were ordered destroyed by the government. The coin auctioned in Chicago is one of only 20 from the 10,000 minted at Carson City that escaped the melting pot.

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The Associated Press contributed to this article. Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6069142801001_6069137843001-vs Extremely rare 1894 dime once owned by Jerry Buss sells for $1.3M James Rogers fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 7eb179db-3afc-5f4f-bcb2-a0465ca69e4a   Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6069142801001_6069137843001-vs Extremely rare 1894 dime once owned by Jerry Buss sells for $1.3M James Rogers fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 7eb179db-3afc-5f4f-bcb2-a0465ca69e4a

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Creepy ‘zombie snail’ flashes green and orange, freaks out hiker

Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6073712916001_6073711779001-vs Creepy 'zombie snail' flashes green and orange, freaks out hiker fox-news/tech/topics/viral fox news fnc/science fnc Chris Ciaccia article 4f257592-29ad-59ab-85b3-649688e64405

Do not attempt to adjust the picture. What you are seeing is real.

A hiker going up the hills in Taiwan’s Changhua County earlier this month spotted a bizarre-looking snail that was flashing orange and green after its body was hijacked by a parasite.

“The snail looked like it had multicolored neon lights inside,” hiker Lin Ruian told Viral Press. “I don’t know what was causing it but it was very strange. I poked it with a stick and it rolled over.”

PINK GRASSHOPPER, UNUSUAL AND ‘EXTREMELY RARE,’ SPOTTED IN UK GARDEN

Succinea (amber snails) often become hosts to the parasitic flatworm, known as leucochloridium paradoxum, according to a 2013 study published in the Journal of Zoology.

The study notes the “[t]he infected snails with pulsating broodsacs behaved differently from their apparently non‐infected counterparts,” adding that they “moved farther, positioned themselves in more exposed and better illuminated places, situated higher in the vegetation.”

Biologist Tomasz Wesołowski, who described leucochloridium paradoxum in the 2013 study, also noted that the infected snails were able to move three times as fast as normal.

The snails flash different colors to imitate caterpillars to hungry birds, who then eat the snail. The process starts all over again, as the birds’ intestinal tract provides a space for the flatworm to reproduce and enter another unsuspecting host.

Remarkably, the snails can survive the event, due to their regenerating capabilities. L. paradoxum exists largely in the eyestalk of the snail, the part the birds go for, as it most resembles a caterpillar, according to the New York Post.

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Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6073712916001_6073711779001-vs Creepy 'zombie snail' flashes green and orange, freaks out hiker fox-news/tech/topics/viral fox news fnc/science fnc Chris Ciaccia article 4f257592-29ad-59ab-85b3-649688e64405   Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6073712916001_6073711779001-vs Creepy 'zombie snail' flashes green and orange, freaks out hiker fox-news/tech/topics/viral fox news fnc/science fnc Chris Ciaccia article 4f257592-29ad-59ab-85b3-649688e64405

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America’s largest asteroid impact left a trail of destruction across the eastern US

About 35 million years ago, an asteroid traveling nearly 144,000 mph (231,000  km/h) smashed into the Atlantic Ocean near the modern-day town of Cape Charles, Virginia. The space rock vaporized instantly, but its impact triggered a gargantuan tsunami, cast up a monsoon of shattered rocks and molten glass that spanned hundreds of miles and carved out the single largest crater in the United States — the so-called Chesapeake Bay impact structure.

Today, that 25-mile-wide (40 kilometers) crater is buried half a mile below the rocky basement of Chesapeake Bay — the 200-mile-long (320 km) estuary linking Virginia and Maryland on the East Coast. That hasn’t stopped scientists from trying to piece together the site’s mysterious history since it was first discovered during a drilling project in 1990.

In a recent study of ocean sediment cores taken almost 250 miles (400 km) northeast of the impact site, researchers found traces of radioactive debris dating to the time of the strike, providing fresh evidence of the impact’s age and destructive power.

RELATED: CRASH! THE 10 BIGGEST IMPACT CRATERS ON EARTH

When the Chesapeake Bay impactor smashed into the Atlantic, it showered the surrounding land and water with shards of molten glass (known as “tektites”) for hundreds of miles in every direction. This rain of meteoric debris formed what scientists call the North American tektite strewn field, the study authors wrote, which stretches from Texas to Massachusetts to Barbados, covering about 4 million square miles (10 million square km) of terrain. By studying shards of meteoric rock buried deep within this sweeping field of impact wreckage, scientists can gather clues about the asteroid’s key characteristics, including its age.

In their recent study (published June 21 in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science), researchers from Arizona State University dated 21 microscopic shards of zircon — a durable gemstone that can survive underground for billions of years. These zircons were lodged in a sediment core taken from roughly 2,150 feet (655 meters) below the Atlantic Ocean. Not only is zircon commonly found in tektites, but it is also a choice mineral for radiometric dating, thanks to some of its radioactive elemental components.

In this case, the researchers used a dating technique called uranium–thorium–helium dating, which looks at how radioactive isotopes, or versions, of uranium and thorium decay into helium. By comparing the ratios of specific helium, thorium and uranium isotopes in each mineral sample, the researchers calculated approximately how long ago the zircon crystals solidified and started to decay.

The team found that the 21 crystals ranged widely in age, running the gamut from about 33 million to 300 million years old. The two youngest samples, which had an average age of about 35 million years old, fit in with previous studies’ estimates for the time of the Chesapeake Bay impact. A closer examination showed that the zircons also bore a cloudy appearance and deformed surface, two signs the minerals were kicked through the air and water by a great impact.

The team concluded that these two young crystals were part of the Chesapeake impact’s path of destruction, confirming that the impact occurred about 35 million years ago. Moreover, the researchers wrote, it showed that uranium–thorium–helium dating is a viable method for constraining the age of ancient impact events, giving scientists a fresh tool to reveal our planet’s long and violent past.

Originally published on Live Science.

Westlake Legal Group asteroidistock America's largest asteroid impact left a trail of destruction across the eastern US LiveScience fox-news/science/planet-earth fox-news/science/air-and-space/asteroids fnc/science fnc eabca09c-da09-529c-b248-274f41eedd2b Brandon Specktor article   Westlake Legal Group asteroidistock America's largest asteroid impact left a trail of destruction across the eastern US LiveScience fox-news/science/planet-earth fox-news/science/air-and-space/asteroids fnc/science fnc eabca09c-da09-529c-b248-274f41eedd2b Brandon Specktor article

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Black hole at Milky Way’s center seen behaving strangely

Westlake Legal Group black-hole-milky-way-NASA Black hole at Milky Way's center seen behaving strangely fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox-news/science/air-and-space fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article a6905718-a962-5bba-afea-76ca37eb25a9

The black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy is behaving strangely, according to astronomers.

In May, scientists observing Sagittarius A, as the black hole is known, saw something unique taking place in the matter around it.

“The black hole is always variable, but this was the brightest we’ve seen in the infrared so far,” Tuan Do, an astronomer at the University of California, Los Angeles, and lead author of the new study, said in a statement on Twitter. “It was probably even brighter before we started observing that night!”

According to Space.com, his hypothesis is based on the fact that, when the astronomers focused on the area on May 13, they saw relatively high brightness decreasing, suggesting that the black hole had passed an unknown peak that was even brighter.

UBIQUITOUS MICROPLASTICS ARE AIRBORNE, REACHING REMOTE ARCTIC ICE

BRITISH EXPLORER’S HISTORIC YANGTZE RIVER TREK INCLUDED BLIZZARDS AND WOLVES

The researchers’ paper states that the recent flare brought Sagittarius A to twice the brightness of the highest previous measurement up to that point.

Do and his colleagues used the Keck telescopes on the top of Hawaii’s Mauna Kea, which have the power to see the world in near infrared light.

Their theory is reportedly that the black hole flare could have been triggered by the close passage of either a star called S0-2 or a dusty object called G2.

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Westlake Legal Group black-hole-milky-way-NASA Black hole at Milky Way's center seen behaving strangely fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox-news/science/air-and-space fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article a6905718-a962-5bba-afea-76ca37eb25a9   Westlake Legal Group black-hole-milky-way-NASA Black hole at Milky Way's center seen behaving strangely fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox-news/science/air-and-space fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article a6905718-a962-5bba-afea-76ca37eb25a9

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Giant ‘human-sized’ monster penguin remains discovered in New Zealand

Scientists have identified a new species of giant penguin from fossils discovered in New Zealand.

The extinct penguin lived in the Paleocene Epoch between 66 million and 56 million years ago, according to the Canterbury Museum.

Taller than the modern Emperor Penguin, the penguins, named Crossvallia waiparensis, stood about 5 feet and weighed up to 80 kilograms (176 pounds).

FOSSILS OF ‘SQUAWKZILLA,’ 19 MILLION-YEAR-OLD CANNIBAL PARROT, FOUND IN NEW ZEALAND

The fossils were discovered by amateur paleontologist Leigh Love at the Waipara Greensand fossil site in North Canterbury on New Zealand’s South Island in 2018. Canterbury Museum curators Paul Scofield, Vanesa De Pietri, and Gerald Mayr, of Senckenberg Natural History Museum in Frankfurt, Germany, studied the bones and found that they belonged to a previously unknown penguin species.

Westlake Legal Group PenguinNewZealand Giant 'human-sized' monster penguin remains discovered in New Zealand James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/new-zealand fox-news/science/archaeology/fossils fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article a53c1107-d4b1-5fe5-87bd-a4e914ec246c

This illustration provided by the Canterbury Museum shows the approximate height of a giant penguin, a “crossvallia waiparensis,” next to a human being. (Canterbury Museum via AP)

Scofield said the leg bones indicated the monster penguin’s feet may have played a bigger role in swimming than is the case with penguins today.

He said that following the extinction of dinosaurs, marine reptiles and gigantic fish, it seemed there was an evolutionary opportunity for penguins to thrive and grow in size.

GAY PENGUINS ADOPT EGG AFTER ATTEMPTING TO HATCH STONES AT ZOO

“The oceans were ripe for the picking with the lack of mega predators,” Scofield said, according to the Associated Press. “It looks like what was going on was that penguins were just starting to exploit that niche.”

Westlake Legal Group NewZealandPenguin2 Giant 'human-sized' monster penguin remains discovered in New Zealand James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/new-zealand fox-news/science/archaeology/fossils fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article a53c1107-d4b1-5fe5-87bd-a4e914ec246c

Dr. Paul Scofield, senior curator for natural history at Canterbury Museum, holds the fossil, a tibiotarsus, top, next to a similar bone of an Emperor Penguin in Christchurch, New Zealand, Wednesday, Aug. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Mark Baker)

The findings were published this week in “Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology.”

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Westlake Legal Group PenguinNewZealand3 Giant 'human-sized' monster penguin remains discovered in New Zealand James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/new-zealand fox-news/science/archaeology/fossils fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article a53c1107-d4b1-5fe5-87bd-a4e914ec246c

Dr. Paul Scofield, senior curator for natural history at Canterbury Museum, holds the fossil, a tibiotarsus, left, next to a similar bone of an Emperor Penguin in Christchurch, New Zealand, Wednesday, Aug. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Mark Baker)

The huge penguin is just the latest remarkable prehistoric animal to be discovered by scientists in New Zealand. Nineteen million-year-old fossils of a giant parrot dubbed ‘Squawkzilla,’ for example, were found in Central Otago.

Fox News’ Chris Ciaccia and the Associated Press contributed to this article.

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

Westlake Legal Group PenguinNewZealand Giant 'human-sized' monster penguin remains discovered in New Zealand James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/new-zealand fox-news/science/archaeology/fossils fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article a53c1107-d4b1-5fe5-87bd-a4e914ec246c   Westlake Legal Group PenguinNewZealand Giant 'human-sized' monster penguin remains discovered in New Zealand James Rogers fox-news/world/world-regions/new-zealand fox-news/science/archaeology/fossils fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article a53c1107-d4b1-5fe5-87bd-a4e914ec246c

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‘Jurassic world’ discovered under Australia

Westlake Legal Group ContentBroker_contentid-87831286c4e5456c8566daa3ac6b3a78 'Jurassic world' discovered under Australia fox-news/science/planet-earth/geology fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc f72b5c25-3989-5917-a201-a25860725758 Chris Ciaccia article

A so-called “Jurassic world” has been discovered, consisting of approximately 100 ancient volcanoes, buried deep inside central Australia.

The research, published in Gondwana Research, details the findings of ancient volcanoes that were active between 180 million and 160 million years ago under the Cooper-Eromanga Basin. Now one of the country’s largest oil and gas regions, it was once home to an area filled with hot ash and lava flying high into the air, surrounded by rivers that eventually evolved into lakes and coal-swamps.

“While the majority of Earth’s volcanic activity occurs at the boundaries of tectonic plates, or under the Earth’s oceans, this ancient Jurassic world developed deep within the interior of the Australian continent,” said the study’s co-author, Simon Holford, in a statement.

STUNNING VOLCANIC ‘LOST WORLD’ DISCOVERED DEEP IN THE OCEAN

“Its discovery raises the prospect that more undiscovered volcanic worlds reside beneath the poorly explored surface of Australia,” Holford added.

The ancient volcanoes, which are well preserved, were discovered under hundreds of feet of rock using advanced subsurface imaging techniques, which are similar to CT scans.

In an interview with IFLScience, Holford said that the discovery of the volcanoes was not anticipated due to the heavy presence of oil exploration and production in the area. The team has termed the province the Warnie Volcanic Province (WVP), “after the Warnie East 1 exploration well, drilled in 1985,” according to the study’s abstract.

LIFE FOUND THRIVING DEEP UNDER OCEAN FLOOR

It’s unlikely there will be much paleontological benefit to discovering the ancient volcanoes, as the drilling rigs used to dig through volcanic rock only make small holes, so the chances of hitting a fossil are minuscule.

However, the discovery of WVP does raise “the possibility of other, yet unidentified, volcanic provinces worldwide,” the study notes.

In October, scientists discovered another volcanic “lost world” off the coast of Tasmania, while mapping the seafloor 249 miles east of the country.

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Westlake Legal Group ContentBroker_contentid-87831286c4e5456c8566daa3ac6b3a78 'Jurassic world' discovered under Australia fox-news/science/planet-earth/geology fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc f72b5c25-3989-5917-a201-a25860725758 Chris Ciaccia article   Westlake Legal Group ContentBroker_contentid-87831286c4e5456c8566daa3ac6b3a78 'Jurassic world' discovered under Australia fox-news/science/planet-earth/geology fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc f72b5c25-3989-5917-a201-a25860725758 Chris Ciaccia article

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Pompeii ‘sorcerer’s treasure trove’ discovered, with bones, skull charms and gems for rituals

Archaeologists have uncovered some incredible treasures buried in Pompeii in recent memory, including an ancient fast-food joint, a long-lost fresco and the buried remains of a racehorse.

But the latest discoveries may top them all — a “sorcerer’s treasure trove” of items, including bones, skull charms and gems used for rituals.

According to Italian news outlet Ansa, archaeologists discovered the various artifacts inside a wooden box that had decomposed, leaving just the bronze hinges behind, preserved in the volcanic plume. The archaeologists also excavated the house where the box was found and unearthed a room with 10 bodies, including women and children.

Westlake Legal Group Pompeii-2-EPA-Shutterstock Pompeii 'sorcerer’s treasure trove' discovered, with bones, skull charms and gems for rituals fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/science/archaeology/ancient-rome fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc f467cecc-9bc1-58a7-aebd-d40bed2a4a9e Chris Ciaccia article

During excavations in Regio V, la Casa con Giardino, in the ancient city of Pompeii, archaeologists uncovered a trunk containing a vast variety of fascinating objects. (CESARE ABBATE/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock)

MOUNT VESUVIUS CAUSED VICTIMS’ HEADS TO EXPLODE, BLOOD TO BOIL: STUDY

“There are dozens of good luck charms next to other objects that were attributed with the power of crushing bad luck,” Massimo Osanna, director of the Archaeological Park of Pompeii, told Ansa.

Osanna added that he believes it is possible the trinkets, which likely belonged to a female servant or slave, as opposed to the owner of the house, may were used for various rituals, including infertility and seduction.

“They could have been necklaces that were worn during rituals rather being used to look elegant,” the archaeologist said.

Inside the box were a number of different gems, including crystals, ceramics, amethysts and amber. Scarabs from the Middle East were also found. A glass bead engraved with the head of Dionysus, the Greek god of wine, fertility and ritual madness, was also unearthed.

Westlake Legal Group Pompeii-1-EPA-Shutterstock Pompeii 'sorcerer’s treasure trove' discovered, with bones, skull charms and gems for rituals fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/science/archaeology/ancient-rome fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc f467cecc-9bc1-58a7-aebd-d40bed2a4a9e Chris Ciaccia article

A view of archaeological artifacts on display, in Pompeii.   (CESARE ABBATE/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock)

GRUESOME POMPEII DISCOVERY: ANCIENT CITY REVEALS GRISLY SECRET

“They are objects of everyday life in the female world and are extraordinary because they tell micro-stories, biographies of the inhabitants of the city who tried to escape the eruption,” Osanna said in comments obtained by BBC.

An ancient marble head that likely represents Dionysus was found separately in Rome in May.

Since their discovery in the 16th century, the Pompeii ruins have given researchers great insight into what life was like before Mount Vesuvius erupted and wiped out the entire city in 79 A.D. Recently, there has been some dispute about whether the volcano erupted in August or October of that year.

In April, an ancient eatery known as a thermopolium (akin to a modern-day snack bar), where patrons could get drinks and hot food, was discovered among the city’s ruins. Researchers have also found a fresco depicting a sensual scene involving the Roman god Jupiter and Leda and the remains of a petrified horse recently.

When Mount Vesuvius erupted, the explosion caused such extreme heat that victims’ skulls exploded, their blood boiled and their muscles, flesh and brains were replaced with ash, according to a study published last year.

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Westlake Legal Group Pompeii-2-EPA-Shutterstock Pompeii 'sorcerer’s treasure trove' discovered, with bones, skull charms and gems for rituals fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/science/archaeology/ancient-rome fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc f467cecc-9bc1-58a7-aebd-d40bed2a4a9e Chris Ciaccia article   Westlake Legal Group Pompeii-2-EPA-Shutterstock Pompeii 'sorcerer’s treasure trove' discovered, with bones, skull charms and gems for rituals fox-news/science/archaeology/history fox-news/science/archaeology/culture fox-news/science/archaeology/ancient-rome fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc f467cecc-9bc1-58a7-aebd-d40bed2a4a9e Chris Ciaccia article

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NASA finds evidence of ‘interplanetary shock’ for first time

NASA has captured a phenomenon in space that has eluded humanity for centuries — an “interplanetary shock.”

Four spacecraft from the space agency, which are part of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) that launched in 2015, managed to get a view of the event in January 2018. The craft were just 12 miles away from one another, which made seeing the spectacle possible.

“MMS was able to measure the shock thanks to its unprecedentedly fast and high-resolution instruments. One of the instruments aboard MMS is the Fast Plasma Investigation,” the space agency said in a statement on its website. “This suite of instruments can measure ions and electrons around the spacecraft at up to 6 times per second. Since the speeding shock waves can pass the spacecraft in just half a second, this high-speed sampling is essential to catching the shock.”

Westlake Legal Group interplanetary-shock NASA finds evidence of 'interplanetary shock' for first time fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc Chris Ciaccia article 8fbcf894-b20a-5283-894b-d73e5b9cc4fa

Data from the Fast Plasma Investigation aboard MMS shows the shock and reflected ions as they washed over MMS. The colors represent the amount of ions seen with warmer colors indicating higher numbers of ions. The reflected ions (yellow band that appears just above the middle of the figure) show up midway through the animation, and can be seen increasing in intensity (warmer colors) as they pass MMS, shown as a white dot. (Credit: Ian Cohen)

CAUSE OF MYSTERIOUS METHANE SPIKES ON MARS STILL UNKNOWN

NASA continued: “Looking at the data from Jan. 8, the scientists noticed a clump of ions from the solar wind. Shortly after, they saw a second clump of ions, created by ions already in the area that had bounced off the shock as it passed by. Analyzing this second population, the scientists found evidence to support a theory of energy transfer first posed in the 1980s.”

An interplanetary shock, which emanates from the Sun, is a type of “collisionless shock,” where particles transfer energy through electromagnetic fields as opposed to bouncing into one another, NASA added.

“These collisionless shocks are a phenomenon found throughout the universe, including in supernovae, black holes and distant stars. MMS studies collisionless shocks around Earth to gain a greater understanding of shocks across the universe,” the space agency continued.

The researchers behind the observation hope that additional instances are spotted by the MMS that will give them more detailed looks at these interplanetary shocks.

NASA has released a video describing the charged particles, also known as the solar wind, in greater detail.

The research describing the find was published in the journal JGR Space Physics.

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Amelia Earhart mystery: The man who discovered the Titanic is searching for the doomed aviator’s plane

The explorer who discovered the wreck of the Titanic in 1985 has embarked on a mission to unravel the mystery of what happened to Amelia Earhart.

Dr. Robert Ballard is leading a team of experts to the remote western Pacific aboard the research vessel E/V Nautilus on a voyage to discover Earhart’s fate.

Earhart famously disappeared while attempting to fly around the world. The aviator and her navigator, Fred Noonan, vanished on July 2, 1937 during a flight from Papua New Guinea to Howland Island in the Pacific. Their fate became one of the great mysteries of the 20th century and is still hotly debated in the 21st century, as well.

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Ballard, who is president of Ocean Exploration Trust and a National Geographic explorer-at-large, is focusing the search on the remote island of Nikumaroro, a coral atoll 1,200 miles from the Marshall Islands.

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This May 20, 1937 photo, provided by The Paragon Agency, shows aviator Amelia Earhart at the tail of her Electra plane, taken at Burbank Airport in Burbank, Calif. (Albert Bresnik/The Paragon Agency via AP)

One theory is that Earhart died a castaway after landing on the island or crashing into the sea nearby. Some 13 human bones were found on Nikumaroro, also known as Gardner Island, three years after Earhart’s disappearance.

The expedition, which is backed by National Geographic, began on Aug. 7 and will last until Aug. 25. Researchers will use underwater drones to search for Earhart’s plane in the waters around the island. Fredrik Hiebert, archeologist-in-residence at the National Geographic Society, will lead a team of researchers hunting for signs of Earhart on the coral atoll that experts hope will lead to her bones.

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“We have an incredible team in place of experts, scientists and explorers who are working diligently to map out this ambitious expedition,” said former U.S. Navy officer Ballard in a statement. “Using state-of-the-art technology and decades of evidence collected in regard to her disappearance, I would say we have a real shot at rewriting history by solving one of the greatest mysteries of our time.”

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Amelia Earhart stands next to a Lockheed Electra 10E, before her last flight in 1937 from Oakland, Calif. (AP Photo/File)

E/V Nautilus operations are often streamed live, although this expedition will operate as a “closed set,” until Aug. 25, according to the Nautilus Live website. The search will be featured in “Expedition Amelia,” a two-hour special to air on NationalGeographic on Oct. 20, 2019.

Fox News has reached out to National Geographic and the Ocean Exploration Trust with a request for comment on this story.

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The special will also use research conducted over the last 30 years by The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR) and its director, Ric Gillespie. The group has visited Nikumaruro on a number of occasions in the search for clues and believes that Earhart died on the island.

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FILE – In this Jan. 13, 1935, file photo, American aviatrix Amelia Earhart climbs from the cockpit of her plane at Los Angeles, Calif., after a flight from Oakland to visit her mother. (AP Photo, File)

“Prior to TIGHAR’s hi-tech search for the plane in 2012, Bob Ballard wished us ‘fair winds, following seas and a little luck,” Gillespie told Fox News, via email.  “We wish him the same.  He has technology that allows him to look deeper than we could. In our thirty years of scientific investigation, we consider the Earhart mystery solved but everybody wants a piece of the plane.  I will be delighted if Bob Ballard proves us right.”

Gillespie, however, rates the likelihood of finding Earhart’s plane at less than 20 percent. “The reef slope at Nikumaroro is a steep, unstable mountainside strewn with boulders, cliffs and caves, and prone to underwater landslides,” he told Fox News. “There may be nothing left to find.”

AMELIA EARHART SIGNED DOCUMENT DISCOVERED IN ATTIC BOX

Earlier this year TIGHAR acquired film footage that it says may shed new light on Earhart’s fate. The group spent 10 years in negotiations to acquire the 16 mm movie film, which shows Earhart’s Lockheed Electra taking off from Lae in Papua New Guinea on a short test flight on July 1, 1937, and the subsequent refueling operation.

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File photo – mystery still swirls around Earhart’s disappearance. (AP)

The key detail in the film is an aluminum patch on the plane’s fuselage, which may correspond with an aluminum fragment discovered in 1991 by TIGHAR on Nikumaroro.

Last year, a scientific study also claimed to shed new light on the enduring mystery.

DOZENS HEARD AMELIA EARHART RADIO FOR HELP AFTER CRASHING INTO PACIFIC: REPORT

Richard Jantz, an emeritus anthropology professor at the University of Tennessee, argued that bones discovered on Nikumaroro in 1940 were likely Earhart’s remains. The research contradicts a forensic analysis of the remains in 1941 that described the bones as belonging to a male. The bones, which were subsequently lost, continue to be a source of debate.

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File photo – Dr. Robert Ballard at the Mystic Aquarium Institute of Exploration, in Mystic, Conn. (AP Photo/The Day, Tim Martin)

However, there are a number of competing theories about what ultimately happened to Earhart.

While some are convinced that Nikumaroro is Earhart’s final resting place, another theory suggests that she met her end on Mili Atoll, in the Marshall Islands.

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The Associated Press contributed to this article.

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

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