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Westlake Legal Group > fnc/science (Page 23)

Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin recalls the Moon’s ‘magnificent desolation’

During a 2012 interview with Fox News Channel’s Neil Cavuto, astronaut Buzz Aldrin recalled the “magnificent desolation” he and Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong witnessed when they landed on the Moon 50 years ago.

“You can see the horizon curving away.  Because of the sun– you can’t see the stars. It– closes up– the iris,” Aldrin recalled during the interview for a documentary entitled, “Fly Me to the Moon.”

“And you think, ‘This place, what I’m looking at, hasn’t changed in hundreds of thousands of years,’” he said. “And now, Neil [Armstrong] and I are looking at this magnificent desolation.”

APOLLO 11 ASTRONAUT MICHAEL COLLINS RECALLS EPIC LAUNCH: ‘WE FELT THE WEIGHT OF THE WORLD ON OUR SHOULDERS’

He also spoke about the awesome responsibility bestowed upon him and his crewmates.

Westlake Legal Group buzz-aldrin-moon-business Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin recalls the Moon's 'magnificent desolation' Perry Chiaramonte fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 1d21b1a5-3abf-59bf-a773-95fdc3c3c9e2

This July 20, 1969 photo made available by NASA shows pilot Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin in the Apollo 11 Lunar Module. For the 50th anniversary of the landing, Omega issued a limited edition Speedmaster watch, a tribute to the one that Aldrin wore to the moon. (Neil Armstrong/NASA via AP)

“I prefaced desolate with magnificent, because of humanity’s reaching outward and accomplishing something that people thought was impossible,” Aldrin said. “They dreamed of somehow reaching the moon.  And to demonstrate, to be a part of demonstrating this miracle was magnificent.”

On July 16, 1969, Aldrin, along with mission commander Neil Armstrong and command module pilot Michael Collins, launched from Kennedy Space Center atop a Saturn V rocket. Four days later, Armstrong made history when he became the first person to walk on the Moon. Aldrin exited the lunar module 19 minutes after Armstrong. The famed astronaut joked about being second during his interview.

APOLLO 11 INSIDERS REMEMBER HISTORY’S MOST FAMOUS SPACE MISSION: ‘WE HAD A JOB TO DO AND WE DID IT’

“I will forever, no matter what I do, be known as the second man on the moon,” he quipped.

Westlake Legal Group ContentBroker_contentid-3f4b692333824a04bc621cc319728faa Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin recalls the Moon's 'magnificent desolation' Perry Chiaramonte fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 1d21b1a5-3abf-59bf-a773-95fdc3c3c9e2

In this July 20, 1969 photo made available by NASA, astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. (Neil Armstrong/NASA via AP)

“Why does it bother you to be a second man to walk on the moon?  You’re one of a dozen men who had that incredible role,” Cavuto asked in a follow-up question.

“I prefaced desolate with magnificent, because of humanity’s reaching outward and accomplishing something that people thought was impossible.”

— Buzz Aldrin

“Well, people love being vice president, don’t they? No,” Aldrin responded with a chuckle. 

APOLLO 11’S EPIC MISSION TO THE MOON IN PICTURES

“Does it bother me?  Yeah, it does a little bit,” Aldrin continued. “Why?  Because that isn’t the way I would have described what this country did with two human beings landing on the moon and then deciding who was going to go out. We did things together as a team.” 

The famous astronaut also recalls his famous steps across the surface of the moon and how he was well aware that the world was watching.

“Right near the end of our period out there … Neil was doing something with the rock boxes– I knew where the TV camera was, and I jumped up and down and pranced around to demonstrate the mobility that a person has,” he said. “So I was demonstrating for the people watching on TV…intentionally showing them the varieties of kangaroo hop … of turning.”

APOLLO 11 INSIDERS REMEMBER HISTORY’S MOST FAMOUS SPACE MISSION: ‘WE HAD A JOB TO DO AND WE DID IT’

During his sit-down with Cavuto, Aldrin also recollected the experience of looking back at Earth while on the surface of the Moon.

“[You] look up there, there’s the earth.  It looks small when it’s up there.  If you look close, you may be able to see the ice over a pole,” he said.  “If you look at your Omega watch, you may be able to tell what time it is in Houston.”

Aldrin also talked about the political significance of their mission to the moon, coming as it did during the space race with Russia at the height of the Cold War.

APOLLO 11: ‘THE BOOK THAT LANDED MAN ON THE MOON’ COULD SELL FOR $9 MILLION

“I do a lot of thinking today– about somebody who had– the guts to see that we were being outshone– outshined in the Cold War by the Soviet Union, and to say, ‘What can we do’?” Aldrin said of President John F. Kennedy and his resolve to make the U.S. the first nation to reach the surface of the Moon.

The interview took place after NASA had shut down their Space Shuttle program in 2011 and Aldrin emphasized the need for the U.S. to get back into space and chart new territory.

Westlake Legal Group buzz-aldrin-neil-armstrong-apollo-11 Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin recalls the Moon's 'magnificent desolation' Perry Chiaramonte fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 1d21b1a5-3abf-59bf-a773-95fdc3c3c9e2

Buzz Aldrin, on the left, practices scooping up a sample while Neil Armstrong, on the right, photographs the collection, during a practice session held before the Apollo 11 mission. (NASA Johnson)

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“I believe that this nation should commit itself within two decades to landing an American permanently on another planet in the solar system,” he said.

Westlake Legal Group ContentBroker_contentid-3f4b692333824a04bc621cc319728faa Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin recalls the Moon's 'magnificent desolation' Perry Chiaramonte fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 1d21b1a5-3abf-59bf-a773-95fdc3c3c9e2   Westlake Legal Group ContentBroker_contentid-3f4b692333824a04bc621cc319728faa Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin recalls the Moon's 'magnificent desolation' Perry Chiaramonte fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 1d21b1a5-3abf-59bf-a773-95fdc3c3c9e2

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1,700-year-old recently discovered Christian letter offers clues into how faithful lived centuries ago

Researchers unveiled a rare 1,700-year-old letter that they said sheds new light into how early Christian believers lived.

The letter, which is at least 40 to 50 years older than all other known Christian documentary letters outside the Bible, is written by a man named “Arrianus.” It was addressed to his brother, “Paulus,” likely named after the Apostle Paul who recorded much of the New Testament, and dates back to the 230s AD.

In the letter, Arrianus discusses their faith, local politics, and food under the Roman Empire.

ISRAEL UNVEILS ANCIENT ROAD ‘WHERE JESUS WALKED’ TO TEMPLE

“The earliest Christians in the Roman Empire are usually portrayed as eccentrics who withdrew from the world and were threatened by persecution. This is countered by the contents of the Basel papyrus letter,” said Sabine Huebner, professor of Ancient History at the University of Basel in Switzerland, where the letter is housed. “The letter contains indications that in the early third century, Christians were living outside the cities in the Egyptian hinterland, where they held political leadership positions and did not differ from their pagan environment in their everyday lives.”

Westlake Legal Group Papyrus1 1,700-year-old recently discovered Christian letter offers clues into how faithful lived centuries ago fox-news/world/religion/christianity fox-news/faith-values/faith fox-news/faith-values fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc d395fea7-b5bc-564b-8ba5-a9fce40f7b4f Caleb Parke article

The world`s oldest autograph by a Christian. (University of Basel)

The document stands out from other preserved letters of Greco-Roman Egypt because of the author’s abbreviated use of the concluding phrase: “I pray that you fare well ‘in the Lord.'”

1,600-YEAR-OLD BIBLICAL MOSAIC DISCOVERED IN ISRAEL, SHEDS LIGHT ON ANCIENT JUDAISM

“The use of this abbreviation – known as a nomen sacrum in this context – leaves no doubt about the Christian beliefs of the letter writer,”  Huebner said. “It is an exclusively Christian formula that we are familiar with from New Testament manuscripts.”

She notes the name Paulus is revealing and “was an extremely rare name at that time” indicating that the “parents mentioned in the letter were Christians” and “named their son after the apostle as early as 200 AD.”

CHRISTIAN AUTHOR SAYS $240G WORTH OF FAKE COPIES OF HER BOOK SOLD ON AMAZON

Arrianus and his brother Paulus were educated sons of the local elite, landowners and public officials.

Westlake Legal Group Papyrus3 1,700-year-old recently discovered Christian letter offers clues into how faithful lived centuries ago fox-news/world/religion/christianity fox-news/faith-values/faith fox-news/faith-values fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc d395fea7-b5bc-564b-8ba5-a9fce40f7b4f Caleb Parke article

The translated English transcript of the Basel papyrus letter. (University of Basel)

The document, known as P.Bas 2.43, originated in the village of Theadelphia in central Egypt and belongs to the Heronius archive, the largest papyrus archive from Roman times. This rare document has been in the care of the Swiss university for the last 100 years.

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Huebner is publishing a monograph, “Papyri and the Social World of the New Testament,” with a copy of the letter, along with others illustrating the social, political, and economic life of the early Christians.

The full transcript of the letter:

“Greetings, my lord, my incomparable brother Paulus. I, Arrianus, salute you, praying that all is as well as possible in your life.

“[Since] Menibios was going to you, I thought it necessary to salute you as well as our lord father. Now, I remind you about the gymnasiarchy, so that we are not troubled here. For Heracleides would be unable to take care of it: he has been named to the city council. Find thus an opportunity that you buy the two [–] arouras.

“But send me the fish liver sauce too, whichever you think is good. Our lady mother is well and salutes you as well as your wives and sweetest children and our brothers and all our people. Salute our brothers [-]genes and Xydes. All our people salute you.

“I pray that you fare well in the Lord.”

Westlake Legal Group Papyrus1 1,700-year-old recently discovered Christian letter offers clues into how faithful lived centuries ago fox-news/world/religion/christianity fox-news/faith-values/faith fox-news/faith-values fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc d395fea7-b5bc-564b-8ba5-a9fce40f7b4f Caleb Parke article   Westlake Legal Group Papyrus1 1,700-year-old recently discovered Christian letter offers clues into how faithful lived centuries ago fox-news/world/religion/christianity fox-news/faith-values/faith fox-news/faith-values fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc d395fea7-b5bc-564b-8ba5-a9fce40f7b4f Caleb Parke article

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Apollo 11’s epic mission to the Moon in pictures

Westlake Legal Group 01_21472223270_b7e0e8c582_o Apollo 11's epic mission to the Moon in pictures fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 815e9d1f-391e-54c6-8b51-95c1f5a49cb8

https://a57.foxnews.com/static.foxnews.com/foxnews.com/content/uploads/2019/07/918/516/12_431222main_AP11_Tickettape_s70-17433_full.jpg?ve=1&tl=1

New York City welcomes Apollo 11 crewmen in a showering of ticker tape down Broadway and Park Avenue in a parade termed as the largest in the city’s history. Pictured in the lead car are astronauts Neil Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.

NASA

https://a57.foxnews.com/static.foxnews.com/foxnews.com/content/uploads/2019/07/918/516/12_431222main_AP11_Tickettape_s70-17433_full.jpg?ve=1&tl=1

Westlake Legal Group 01_21472223270_b7e0e8c582_o Apollo 11's epic mission to the Moon in pictures fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 815e9d1f-391e-54c6-8b51-95c1f5a49cb8   Westlake Legal Group 01_21472223270_b7e0e8c582_o Apollo 11's epic mission to the Moon in pictures fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox news fnc/science fnc article 815e9d1f-391e-54c6-8b51-95c1f5a49cb8

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Radiation levels in Marshall Islands higher than Fukushima, Chernobyl, study finds

Radiation levels across the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific Ocean, where the United States conducted more than 65 nuclear tests during the Cold War, are still alarmingly high — even higher than Fukushima and Chernobyl in some parts, a new study shows.

Researchers at Columbia University tested soil samples on four uninhabited isles and discovered that they contained concentrations of nuclear isotopes that are “significantly” higher than those found near the two disaster sites.

Westlake Legal Group nuclear_explosion001 Radiation levels in Marshall Islands higher than Fukushima, Chernobyl, study finds New York Post fox-news/us/disasters/nuclear fnc/science fnc d1948204-618a-5e9b-bacb-71b9daaa1309 article

A nuclear test explosion from April 1954 is shown from the U.S. Defense Department.  (brookings.edu)

“All of these measurements are important due to the potential for repopulation of at least some of the atolls in the Marshall Islands,” explained Dr. David Krofcheck, of the physics department at the University of Auckland.

“Such measurements of the effects of nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands must continue on a regular basis into the indefinite future,” he told the Science Media Centre.

Two of the isles where the soil was analyzed — Bikini and Enewetak — were used as “ground-zero” for US nuclear tests between 1946 and 1958. The others, Rongelap and Utirik, were affected by radioactive fallout from the largest of the 67 tests conducted, known as the Bravo test.

SITE OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR DISASTER TO BECOME OFFICIAL TOURIST ATTRACTION UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT SAYS

Researchers at Columbia said they aimed to “present a picture of current radiological conditions” in the region “by examining external gamma radiation and soil radionuclide activity concentrations.”

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Their findings, which were published Monday in the journal PNAS, showed that gamma radiation in some areas were “well above” the legal exposure limit established in agreements between the US and Republic of the Marshall Islands.

To continue reading on The New York Post, click here.

Westlake Legal Group nuclear_explosion001 Radiation levels in Marshall Islands higher than Fukushima, Chernobyl, study finds New York Post fox-news/us/disasters/nuclear fnc/science fnc d1948204-618a-5e9b-bacb-71b9daaa1309 article   Westlake Legal Group nuclear_explosion001 Radiation levels in Marshall Islands higher than Fukushima, Chernobyl, study finds New York Post fox-news/us/disasters/nuclear fnc/science fnc d1948204-618a-5e9b-bacb-71b9daaa1309 article

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Apollo 11: ‘The book that landed man on the Moon’ could sell for $9 million

The Lunar Module Timeline Book that traveled to the Moon with Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin is up for auction later this week.

The book, which was used to navigate the Eagle lunar module to the surface of the Moon, contains nearly 150 handwritten annotations by the astronauts as well as possible traces of moondust.

“It’s the book that landed man on the Moon — this is no exaggeration,” Christina Geiger, Christie’s head of department for books and manuscripts, told Fox News. “It’s essentially the features’ manual that was used by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin in real time for the entire voyage of the Eagle.”

APOLLO ASTRONAUT RECOUNTS MISSION CONTROL DURING MOON LANDING: ‘IT WAS TENSE, BECAUSE THIS WAS THE REAL THING NOW’

The book also contains the first human writing on another world — a set of coordinates written by Buzz Aldrin shortly after the Eagle landed on the lunar surface.

Westlake Legal Group LunarModuleTimelineBook2 Apollo 11: 'The book that landed man on the Moon' could sell for $9 million James Rogers fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 164066b1-dd82-53de-8756-909580f966b9

The book has a pre-sale estimate of $7 million to $9 million. (Fox News)

The historic item, which will be auctioned by Christie’s on July 18, has a pre-sale estimate of between $7 million and $9 million.

July 20 marks the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing.

APOLLO 11 ARTIFACTS OWNED BY BUZZ ALDRIN UP FOR AUCTION

The historic mission continues to be a source of fascination. A number of Apollo 11 artifacts that were owned by Buzz Aldrin are also up for auction at Sotheby’s later this month. The Apollo 11 lunar module pilot, who is 89 years old, has consigned 11 items for auction, which include pages from the mission’s flown flight plan and flown data file.

Westlake Legal Group c1abd8f8-LunarModuleTimelineBook1 Apollo 11: 'The book that landed man on the Moon' could sell for $9 million James Rogers fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 164066b1-dd82-53de-8756-909580f966b9

The Apollo 11 Lunar Module Timeline Book. (Fox News)

Additionally, a set of original videotape recordings of the Apollo 11 Moon landing – bought for $217.77 at a government surplus auction by a former NASA intern in the 1970s – could raise up to $2 million when they are auctioned by Sotheby’s on July 20.

And a preliminary flight plan and a NASA memo discussing Armstrong’s historic first words on the Moon are among a host of artifacts from the historic Apollo 11 mission that will be auctioned by Dallas-based Heritage Auctions from July 16 to 18.

A rare signed photo of Apollo 11 astronaut Armstrong making his ‘giant leap for mankind’ was recently sold in a separate auction for $52,247.

APOLLO 11: ‘GIANT LEAP’ PHOTO SIGNED BY NEIL ARMSTRONG SELLS FOR $52G

Last year, a checklist that traveled to the surface of the Moon with Armstrong and Aldrin sold at auction in New York for $62,500.

In 2017, a bag containing Moondust filled by Armstrong was sold by Sotheby’s for $1.8 million.

The bag previously had been misidentified and mistakenly sold at an online government auction for $995. The Chicago-area woman who purchased the bag won an intense court battle with NASA, which attempted to retrieve the artifact.

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Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins recently revealed a previously unseen photo of the famous Moon landing crew members that he “found at the bottom of a box.”

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

Westlake Legal Group LunarModuleTimelineBook1 Apollo 11: 'The book that landed man on the Moon' could sell for $9 million James Rogers fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 164066b1-dd82-53de-8756-909580f966b9   Westlake Legal Group LunarModuleTimelineBook1 Apollo 11: 'The book that landed man on the Moon' could sell for $9 million James Rogers fox-news/us/personal-freedoms/proud-american fox-news/topic/apollo-11 fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox-news/columns/digging-history fox news fnc/science fnc article 164066b1-dd82-53de-8756-909580f966b9

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Some whales ‘whisper’ to their calves to evade predators

Along with dolphins, whales are widely considered the smartest mammals in the sea, having developed brains and behavior that suggest intelligence and sophistication rarely seen in nature.

But a new study theorizes that some species of whales have taken that intellect to a new level — by “whispering.”

The research, published in the Journal of Experimental Biology, suggests that female southern right whales “whisper” to their calves to avoid being overheard by killer whales.

Westlake Legal Group right-whale-northern Some whales 'whisper' to their calves to evade predators fox-news/science/wild-nature/mammals fox news fnc/science fnc Chris Ciaccia article 99700524-1427-56a4-9d4a-3345619c1e9b

A female North Atlantic right whale with her calf. (Credit: Public Domain)

HUMPBACK WHALE FREED FROM SHARK NET OFF AUSTRALIA COAST IN DIFFICULT RESCUE, VIDEO SHOWS

Researchers used multisensor tags on nine lactating whales for approximately 63 hours in a Western Australian breeding ground, using SoundTrap to estimate the acoustic background noise and were astonished by what they heard  — or barely heard.

“It was difficult to assign the calls to either the calf or the mom, because they are so close to each other,” the study’s lead author, Mia Nielsen, said in a statement. Even though southern right whales calves are between 16 and 26 feet long (5 and 8 meters), they are vulnerable to attack, placing an importance on keeping a low profile when predators are near.

Whale calls are usually audible for miles, but the moos and grunts of the female southern right whales were barely audible over the pounding waves, often at very low decibel levels and less frequent then usual.

Nielsen, who said that one of the initial challenges was understanding the whales in the area, noted that these mammals are “very physical with each other,” including actions such as the calf rubbing up against the mother. This made it difficult for the tags to stay attached to the calves for longer than 40 minutes.

“We conclude that such acoustic crypsis in southern right whales and other baleen whales decreases the risk of alerting potential predators and hence jeopardizing a substantial energetic investment by the mother,” the study’s abstract states.

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Westlake Legal Group right-whale-northern Some whales 'whisper' to their calves to evade predators fox-news/science/wild-nature/mammals fox news fnc/science fnc Chris Ciaccia article 99700524-1427-56a4-9d4a-3345619c1e9b   Westlake Legal Group right-whale-northern Some whales 'whisper' to their calves to evade predators fox-news/science/wild-nature/mammals fox news fnc/science fnc Chris Ciaccia article 99700524-1427-56a4-9d4a-3345619c1e9b

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India aborts Moon mission launch, citing technical glitch

India aborted the launch on Monday of a spacecraft intended to land on the far side of the moon less than an hour before liftoff.

The Chandrayaan-2 mission was called off when a “technical snag” was observed in the 640-ton, 14-story rocket launcher, Indian Space Research Organization spokesman B.R. Guruprasad said.

The countdown abruptly stopped at T-56 minutes, 24 seconds, and Guruprasad said that the agency would announce a revised launch date soon.

Westlake Legal Group AP19195810348933 India aborts Moon mission launch, citing technical glitch fox-news/world/world-regions/india fox-news/world/world-regions/asia fox-news/science/air-and-space fnc/science fnc c97ed921-633c-51bc-b341-2e386598bd31 Associated Press article

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)’s launch vehicle carrying Chandrayaan-2 standing at Satish Dhawan Space Center after the mission was aborted. (AP Photo/Manish Swarup)

Chandrayaan, the word for “moon craft” in Sanskrit, is designed for a soft landing on the lunar south pole and to send a rover to explore water deposits confirmed by a previous Indian space mission.

With nuclear-armed India poised to become the world’s fifth-largest economy, the ardently nationalist government of Prime Minister Narendra Modi is eager to show off the country’s prowess in security and technology. If India did manage the soft landing, it would be only the fourth to do so after the U.S., Russia and China.

Dr. K. Sivan, chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization, said at a news conference last week that the around $140-million Chandrayaan-2 mission was the nation’s most prestigious to date, in part because of the technical complexities of soft landing on the lunar surface — an event he described as “15 terrifying minutes.”

After countdown commenced on Sunday, Sivan visited two Hindu shrines to pray for the mission’s success.

Practically since its inception in 1962, India’s space program has been criticized as inappropriate for an overpopulated, developing nation.

But decades of space research have allowed India to develop satellite, communications and remote sensing technologies that are helping solve everyday problems at home, from forecasting fish migration to predicting storms and floods.

With the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission this month, the world’s biggest space agencies are returning their gaze to the moon, seen as ideal testing grounds for technologies required for deep space exploration, and, with the confirmed discovery of water, as a possible pit stop along the way.

APOLLO ASTRONAUT RECALLS MISSION CONTROL DURING MOON LANDING

“The moon is sort of our backyard for training to go to Mars,” said Adam Steltzner, NASA’s chief engineer responsible for its 2020 mission to Mars.

Because of repeated delays, India missed the chance to achieve the first soft landing near the lunar south pole. China’s Chang’e 4 mission landed a lander and rover there last January.

India’s Chandrayaan-1 mission orbited the moon in 2008 and helped confirm the presence of water. The Indian Space Research Organization wants its new mission’s rover to further probe the far side of the moon, where scientists believe a basin contains water-ice that could help humans do more than plant flags on future manned missions.

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The U.S. is working to send a manned spacecraft to the moon’s south pole by 2024.

Modi has set a deadline of 2022 for India’s first manned spaceflight.

Westlake Legal Group AP19195810348933 India aborts Moon mission launch, citing technical glitch fox-news/world/world-regions/india fox-news/world/world-regions/asia fox-news/science/air-and-space fnc/science fnc c97ed921-633c-51bc-b341-2e386598bd31 Associated Press article   Westlake Legal Group AP19195810348933 India aborts Moon mission launch, citing technical glitch fox-news/world/world-regions/india fox-news/world/world-regions/asia fox-news/science/air-and-space fnc/science fnc c97ed921-633c-51bc-b341-2e386598bd31 Associated Press article

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What is the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale?

Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6058784547001_6058795091001-vs What is the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale? Zoe Szathmary fox-news/weather fox-news/us/disasters/hurricanes-typhoons fox-news/us/disasters fox-news/us fox news fnc/science fnc article 48cd29e9-0dbd-5dfb-838b-8f4c7cdd6a03

Hurricanes are categorized using what’s known as the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) explains online that it “is a 1 to 5 rating based on a hurricane’s sustained wind speed.”

Different types of damage may occur depending on each storm category. Read on to see what they signify.

Category 1, sustained winds of 74 – 95 mph

For storms in this category, there’s going to be “some damage” from winds, the NHC advises.

Large tree branches and shallow trees could be knocked down, according to the agency. Gutters, roofs, shingles and vinyl siding for what it calls “well-constructed frame homes” could be affected, too.

Category 2, sustained winds of 96 – 110 mph

“Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage,” the NHC warns for such storms.

There may be power outages “that could last from several days to weeks.”

Category 3, sustained winds of 111 – 129 mph

Category 3, Category 4 and Category 5 storms are all labeled “major” hurricanes.

With Category 3, there will be “devastating” damage, according to the NHC.

“Well-built framed homes may incur major damage or removal of roof decking and gable ends,” the agency warns. There also may be no water or electricity for days to weeks after the storm moves along.

Category 4, sustained winds of 130 – 156 mph

“Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls,” the NHC explains.

For both Category 4 and Category 5 storms, “catastrophic” damage is forecast: they involve residential areas being cut off by trees and power poles that have come down, the agency says, and there may be months-long power outages.

Category 5, sustained winds of 157 mph or higher

This is the highest rating for hurricanes on the scale.

“A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse,” according to the NHC. 

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India to land rover on Moon in global space race

Taking a giant leap in its space program, India is looking to solidify its place among the world’s space-exploring countries with its second unmanned mission to the Moon, aiming to land a rover near the unexplored lunar south pole.

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) plans to a launch a spacecraft using domestic technology on Monday, scheduling to touch down on the Moon Sept. 6 or 7. The $141 million Chandrayaan-2 mission will analyze minerals, map the unexplored south pole’s surface and search for water.

It will “boldly go where no country has ever gone before,” said the ISRO in a statement.

With India growing as the world’s fifth-largest economy, India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi is determined to show his country’s security and technological prowess on the global stage.

India successfully test-fired an anti-satellite weapon in March, which Modi said demonstrated the country’s capability as a space power alongside the United States, Russia and China. It also plans to send humans into space by 2022, becoming only the fourth nation to do so.

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However, India is not alone in its ambitions as it competes with other nations in the international space race.

The U.S. – which celebrates the 50th anniversary this month of the Apollo 11 mission that made Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin the first humans on the moon – is working to send a manned spacecraft to the planetoid’s south pole by 2024. Israel, additionally, attempted to land an unmanned spacecraft on the moon back in April but failed when the first privately funded lunar landing crashed.

Westlake Legal Group Chandrayaan-2-2-AP India to land rover on Moon in global space race fox-news/world/world-regions/india fox-news/world fox-news/science/air-and-space/spaceflight fox-news/science/air-and-space/moon fox-news/science/air-and-space fox-news/science fox-news/news-events Fox News Staff fox news fnc/science fnc c0ed389e-9f23-5b83-b01d-c5742bb1d4d1 article

An employee playfully hugs a cut-out of a crescent moon at the Nehru Planetarium in New Delhi, India, Thursday, July 11, 2019. India is looking to take a giant leap in its space program and solidify its place among the world’s spacefaring nations with its second unmanned mission to the moon, this one aimed at landing a rover near the unexplored south pole. (AP Photo/Altaf Qadri)

India’s first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, whose name is Sanskrit for “moon craft,” orbited the Moon in 2008 and helped confirm the presence of water. In 2013-2014, India also sent a satellite into Mars’ orbit in the nation’s first interplanetary mission. The country’s decades-long space research has allowed it to develop satellite, communications and remote sensing technologies that solve everyday problems at home, such as forecasting fish migration and predicting weather conditions like storms and floods.

Critics have questioned the expense of the mission in the 1.3-billion-person country plagued by widespread poverty and high child mortality rates. Author and economic commentator Gurcharan Das, however, said the cost of the second lunar mission is small compared with India’s overall budget and that the moonshot could have a multiplier effect on the economy.

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Das urged India to get the country’s private sector more involved in the mission’s research and development, which he said could yield “huge benefits” beyond the realm of space exploration.

Chandrayaan-2 will have a lunar orbiter, lander and a rover. The lander will carry a camera, seismometer, a thermal instrument and a NASA-supplied laser retroreflector to help calculate the distance between the Earth and the moon.

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Many are interested in the lunar south pole because of its largely-shadowed portion, presenting a greater possibility of water. Water is an essential ingredient for life, and finding it is part of science’s greater goal of determining whether there is life elsewhere in our solar system; India’s rover will be the first to look for water at the south pole.

“These days, it has become the place to go,” said space expert Nandivada Rathnasree.

Fox News’ Morgan Cheung and the Associated Press contributed to this report.

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Tropical Storm Barry prompts storm surge, flood warnings: Why is New Orleans at an increased risk?

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As Tropical Storm Barry continues to barrel toward the Louisiana coast, flooding and rainfall are increasingly becoming a concern — especially for the city of New Orleans, which is more vulnerable to weather-related phenomena.

Barry is forecast to dump 10 to 20 inches of rain on New Orleans through Sunday. Some isolated areas could see as much as 25 inches.

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But why is this historic city more prone to flooding than other areas of the state? Read on for a look at a few of the factors that have put the so-called “Big Easy” at an increased risk.

Low-elevation 

New Orleans is particularly vulnerable to flooding because of its low elevation, according to the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Only about half of the city is above sea level — a drop from what once was 100 percent, per The Atlantic, which cited human interference as a primary reason for why the city has sunk. A 2016 NASA study also said “natural geologic” factors played a part.

“When New Orleans was being constructed they ran out of good land. To make more room, engineers drained swamplands around the area so they could continue expansion. This drainage led to subsidence,” stated Wisconsin-Eau Claire, noting subsidence is “sinking or settling to a lower level, in this case, it was the earth’s surface sinking lower in relation to sea level.”

Even some of the city’s first settlers — primarily in New Orleans’ French Quarter, the original part of the city — knew to build their homes on elevated land. Those with the “means and resources” built homes on “prime real estate” — or on lots roughly 10 feet about sea level, the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) writes in its “History of Building Elevation in New Orleans.”

“Even during its very beginnings, New Orleans’ residents understood the value of land elevated above the flood-prone land they had chosen to call home,” the agency adds.

Levee construction 

In 1719, the first levee was built in New Orleans. The first of many along the Mississippi, those who constructed it were aware of the “supreme importance of elevated or at least protected ground in the city,” per the FEMA report.

But the construction of levees would later contribute to subsidence.

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The city is situated between the levees along the Mississippi River and those around Lake Pontchartrain. This, according to the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, creates a “bowl” effect in the city. Essentially, once water gets in, it’s hard to remove.

Vanishing wetlands and barrier islands 

New Orleans is also prone to flooding because the city is susceptible to storm surges, or “the abnormal rise in seawater level during a storm,” according to the National Ocean Service. It’s measured by how high the water reaches from the normal astronomical tide.

Wetlands and barrier islands serve as natural defenses against storm surges. In fact, “for every mile of continuous wetlands, a storm surge can be reduced by three to eight inches,” per the university.

“Wetlands are naturally replenished every year by sediment from a flooding river” if these areas are undisturbed, the university added. But Wetlands and barrier islands near New Orleans have disappeared at “an incredible rate” due to human interference.

WHAT ARE STORM SURGES? 

“Dams upriver from the city have caused the amount of sediment in the river to be reduced by up to 67 [percent],” the university claims.

“Along with that, the levees built around New Orleans to protect it now divert the river’s flow much further out into the Gulf of Mexico, meaning that much of the remaining sediment is washed out to sea, and not deposited in either the wetlands or the barrier islands. These factors are denying nature’s best defenses their replenishment, and causing them to disappear.”

In fact, every hour and a half, Louisiana loses about a football field’s worth of land, The New Yorker claimed in a March report.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.

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