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Westlake Legal Group > fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun

Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness

A swath of South America is set to enjoy a total solar eclipse.

The July 2 solar eclipse will plunge part of the continent into darkness, with the line of totality stretching across areas of Chile and Argentina. Weather permitting, a partial eclipse will also be visible in some places in Ecuador, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, according to timeanddate.com.

A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun and scores a bull’s-eye by completely blotting out the sunlight.

SOLAR ECLIPSE 2017 IN PICTURES

Tourists from around the world are expected to flock to the line of totality to witness the unusual event.

The line of totality also passes within a mile of the site for the planned Giant Magellan Telescope at La Serena, on the edge of the Atacama Desert in Chile.

“We are very much looking forward to seeing the total solar eclipse in July,” said Patrick McCarthy, astronomer and vice president of the Giant Magellan Telescope, in a statement emailed to Fox News. “We will also enjoy the spectacular Chilean night sky and get a first-hand look at the progress of construction at the GMT site. It promises to be a great week.”

SOLAR ECLIPSE: THE BIG EVENT IS FINALLY HERE

The powerful 1,500-ton Giant Magellan Telescope, which is expected to be operational in 2025, aims to expand our understanding of the universe.

Westlake Legal Group NASATotalSolarEclipse2017 Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness James Rogers fox-news/science/planet-earth/solar-eclipse fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc article 2f21716f-c707-5c1e-adb1-4e609574ee59

A photo taken during the total solar eclipse on Aug. 2017. (NASA/Gopalswamy)

The full eclipse in South America begins at 2:01:08 p.m. EDT and ends at 4:44:46 p.m. EDT on July 2, according to timeanddate.com.

Many Americans, of course, will fondly remember the solar eclipse of 2017, which captivated millions of people across the country.

WHAT CAUSES A TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE?

The coast-to-coast eclipse on Aug. 21 of that year carved a 70-mile wide path of totality from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic, with hordes of people donning solar eclipse glasses to experience the unusual event. The eclipse, which began in Oregon and ended in South Carolina, was the first to cross the continental U.S. since 1918.

Westlake Legal Group 04_rtr4u5bj Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness James Rogers fox-news/science/planet-earth/solar-eclipse fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc article 2f21716f-c707-5c1e-adb1-4e609574ee59

File photo – People look at a total solar eclipse on Svalbard March 20, 2015. (REUTERS/Haakon Mosvold Larsen/NTB scanpix)

Families from all over the country flocked to cities in the line of totality, such as Charleston and Nashville, which hosted over 1 million visitors.

The Giant Magellan Telescope’s McCarthy told Fox News that he was in Oregon for the 2017 eclipse. “Words cannot describe the unique sensation of totality,” he explained, via email.

WHAT CAUSES A TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE?

The next total solar eclipse in the U.S. will be in 2024 and the next coast-to-coast one won’t be until 2045.

Westlake Legal Group 05_rts1cpf8 Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness James Rogers fox-news/science/planet-earth/solar-eclipse fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc article 2f21716f-c707-5c1e-adb1-4e609574ee59

File photo – Enthusiasts Tanner Person (R) and Josh Blink, both from Vacaville, California, watch a total solar eclipse while standing atop Carroll Rim Trail at Painted Hills, a unit of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, near Mitchell, Oregon, U.S. August 21, 2017. (REUTERS/Adrees Latif)

NASA will be closely monitoring the July 2 total eclipse in South America. “Studying the Sun during total solar eclipses helps scientists understand the source and behavior of solar radiation that drives space weather near Earth, which can affect the health of astronauts in space and the durability of materials used to build spacecraft,” it explains NASA, on its website. “Similar data will be important in planning NASA’s return of astronauts to the Moon in 2024 and eventual crewed missions to Mars.”

The space agency will be live-streaming the total solar eclipse with the Exploratorium in San Francisco. NASA will also be providing updates from its Parker Solar Probe.

NASA’S PARKER SOLAR PROBE BLASTS OFF ON EPIC JOURNEY TO ‘TOUCH THE SUN’

The Probe blasted off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket on Aug. 12, 2018. The $1.5 billion mission is taking humanity closer to the Sun than ever before.

Westlake Legal Group 09_ap17233677630370 Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness James Rogers fox-news/science/planet-earth/solar-eclipse fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc article 2f21716f-c707-5c1e-adb1-4e609574ee59

File photo – In this multiple exposure photograph, the phases of a partial solar eclipse are seen over the Gateway Arch on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017, in St. Louis. The Gateway Arch was just a few miles outside of the path of totality. (AP Photo/Jeff Roberson)

In October 2018, the Probe clinched the record for closest approach to the Sun by a man-made object. In April 2019, Parker completed its second close approach, coming within 15 million miles of the star.

On its closest approach in 2024, the probe will come within 3.8 million miles of the Sun’s surface. It will also be traveling at approximately 430,000 mph, setting a new speed record for a manmade object.

NASA’S PARKER SOLAR PROBE BREAKS RECORD, BECOMES CLOSEST SPACECRAFT TO THE SUN

Westlake Legal Group proba-2-satellite-partial-eclipse Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness James Rogers fox-news/science/planet-earth/solar-eclipse fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc article 2f21716f-c707-5c1e-adb1-4e609574ee59

ESA’s Proba-2 satellite experienced 3 partial solar eclipses during the total solar eclipse of Nov. 13, 2012 (EST). This image is taken from a video made by the spacecraft. (ESA)

Other spacecraft will also be monitoring the July 2 eclipse in South America. In addition to the Parker Solar Probe, NASA will be providing updates from its Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, which uses four spacecraft in near-Earth orbit to study the area of space dominated by our planet’s magnetic field.

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Another total solar eclipse will be visible in South America on Dec. 14, 2020.

The Associated Press and Fox News’ Chris Ciaccia contributed to this article. Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

Westlake Legal Group NASATotalSolarEclipse2017 Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness James Rogers fox-news/science/planet-earth/solar-eclipse fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc article 2f21716f-c707-5c1e-adb1-4e609574ee59   Westlake Legal Group NASATotalSolarEclipse2017 Total solar eclipse will plunge parts of South America into darkness James Rogers fox-news/science/planet-earth/solar-eclipse fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox-news/science/air-and-space/astronomy fox news fnc/science fnc article 2f21716f-c707-5c1e-adb1-4e609574ee59

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Fountains of plasma rain might explain one of the biggest mysteries of the Sun

Westlake Legal Group fountains-of-plasma-rain-might-explain-one-of-the-biggest-mysteries-of-the-sun Fountains of plasma rain might explain one of the biggest mysteries of the Sun LiveScience fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fnc/science fnc Brandon Specktor, Senior Writer article 47c74830-44cd-52fd-add0-a223c6e26522

Today’s weather forecast on the sun calls for a high of 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,500 degrees Celsius), constant supersonic wind, mysterious eruptions of giant lava-lamp-blobs and, oh yes, light rain. So, you know, pack an umbrella.

As bizarre as it sounds, rain on the sun is a relatively common occurrence. Unlike rain on Earth, where liquid water evaporates, condenses into clouds, then falls back down in droplets after growing sufficiently heavy, solar rain results from the rapid heating and cooling of plasma (the hot, charged gas that comprises the sun).

Scientists expect to see fiery rings of plasma rain rise and fall along the sun’s huge, looping magnetic field lines after the eruption of solar flares, which can heat the plasma at the sun’s surface from a few thousand to nearly 2 million F (1.1 million C). Now, however, NASA scientists believe they’ve discovered a completely new structure on the sun that may create days-long rain storms, even without the intense heat of solar flares. [Rainbow Album: The Many Colors of the Sun]

In a new study published April 5 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, the NASA team describes the structures as raining null-point topologies (RNPTs) — superbright, comparatively small magnetic loops that rise up to 30,000 miles (50,000 kilometers) above the sun’s surface. While studying five months of solar observations taken by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the team detected three clearly visible RNPT structures, each of which blazed with plasma rain for days at a time.

More From LiveScience

“The ease with which these structures were identified and the frequency of rain during all observations provides compelling support for the conclusion that this is a ubiquitous phenomenon,” the authors wrote in the study.

Hunting for molten rain

The detection of these drizzly structures came as a surprise to NASA researcher Emily Mason, who was scouring the SDO footage for signs of rain in massive structures called helmet streamers — 1 million-mile-tall (1.6 million km) magnetic field loops named after a knight’s pointy headgear.

These streamers are clearly visible leaping out of the sun’s corona, or the outermost part of its atmosphere, during solar eclipses , and seemed as good a place as any to look for solar rain, the researchers wrote. However, Mason couldn’t find a trace of falling plasma in any SDO footage of the streamers. What she did see were numerous bright, low, mysterious structures that she and her team later identified as the RNTPs.

The relatively low altitude of the structures may be the most interesting aspect of the results, the researchers wrote. Reaching a maximum of 30,000 miles (50,000 km) over the sun’s surface, the RNTPs were only about 2% as tall as the helmet streamers Mason and her team were looking at. That means that whatever process was causing the plasma to heat up and rise along the magnetic field lines was occurring in a much narrower region of the sun’s atmosphere than previously thought.

That means the processes that drive these ubiquitous fountains could help explain one of the enduring mysteries of the sun — why is the sun’s atmosphere nearly 300 times hotter than its surface?

“We still don’t know exactly what’s heating the corona, but we know it has to happen in this layer,” Mason said in a statement.

Originally published on Live Science.

Westlake Legal Group solar-rain Fountains of plasma rain might explain one of the biggest mysteries of the Sun LiveScience fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fnc/science fnc Brandon Specktor, Senior Writer article 47c74830-44cd-52fd-add0-a223c6e26522   Westlake Legal Group solar-rain Fountains of plasma rain might explain one of the biggest mysteries of the Sun LiveScience fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fnc/science fnc Brandon Specktor, Senior Writer article 47c74830-44cd-52fd-add0-a223c6e26522

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Jupiter’s poles shown heating up in incredible NASA images

Westlake Legal Group jupiters-poles-shown-heating-up-in-incredible-nasa-images Jupiter's poles shown heating up in incredible NASA images fox-news/science/jupiter fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox news fnc/science fnc ddb859fd-b3ae-5200-a588-0071bc044f15 Chris Ciaccia article

No, that’s not a far-away alien world you’re looking at. That’s an infrared image of Jupiter and its poles, courtesy of NASA.

NASA’s JPL has released images of the gas giant showing the impact that solar winds are having on the planet’s poles, which are causing a hotter atmosphere than previously thought.

“The solar wind impact at Jupiter is an extreme example of space weather,” said NASA JPL’s James Sinclair, who led new research published April 8 in Nature Astronomy, in a statement. “We’re seeing the solar wind having an effect deeper than is normally seen.”

NASA IS SENDING ROBOTIC BEES TO SPACE

Similar to the auroras on Earth’s poles (the aurora borealis and aurora australis), energy particles from the Sun interact with the heat in the gases of the atmosphere on Jupiter. But it’s the level of activity and how deep it is going, extending into the stratosphere, that is surprising scientists.

“What is startling about the results is that we were able to associate for the first time the variations in solar wind and the response in the stratosphere — and that the response to these variations is so quick for such a large area,” said JPL’s Glenn Orton, co-author and part of the observing team, in the statement.

Westlake Legal Group jupiter-infrared-2 Jupiter's poles shown heating up in incredible NASA images fox-news/science/jupiter fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox news fnc/science fnc ddb859fd-b3ae-5200-a588-0071bc044f15 Chris Ciaccia article

Sensitive to Jupiter’s stratospheric temperatures, these infrared images were recorded by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (COMICS) at the Subaru Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Areas that are more yellow and red indicate the hotter regions. (Credit: NAOJ and NASA/JPL-Caltech)

The researchers found that a day after the solar wind hit the planet, the chemistry in its atmosphere changed and the temperature rose. The scientists used the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii and recorded the images using the telescope’s Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectograph.

The researchers hope to understand how the solar winds from the Sun impact other planets environments, as well as our own.

“Such heating and chemical reactions may tell us something about other planets with harsh environments, and even early Earth,” said Yasumasa Kasaba in the statement.

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Westlake Legal Group jupiter-lead Jupiter's poles shown heating up in incredible NASA images fox-news/science/jupiter fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox news fnc/science fnc ddb859fd-b3ae-5200-a588-0071bc044f15 Chris Ciaccia article   Westlake Legal Group jupiter-lead Jupiter's poles shown heating up in incredible NASA images fox-news/science/jupiter fox-news/science/air-and-space/sun fox-news/science/air-and-space/nasa fox news fnc/science fnc ddb859fd-b3ae-5200-a588-0071bc044f15 Chris Ciaccia article

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