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Westlake Legal Group > fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate

Antarctica temperatures reach 69 degrees for the first time ever, scientists say

Temperatures in Antarctica were hotter than 68 degrees Fahrenheit for the first time ever last Sunday.

Researchers recorded a high of 69.35 on an island off the coast of the continent, which they described as “incredible and abnormal.”

“We are seeing the warming trend in many of the sites we are monitoring, but we have never seen anything like this,” said Brazilian scientist Carlos Schaefer, according to the BBC.

ANCIENT ANTARCTIC ICE MELT MADE SEA LEVELS RISE ALMOST 10 FEET SOMME 129,000 AGO

Westlake Legal Group AP20038812357769 Antarctica temperatures reach 69 degrees for the first time ever, scientists say fox-news/world/environment/climate-change fox-news/weather fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc David Aaro c22fb12b-507c-56c8-b270-07908151309b article

FILE – In this undated file photo, a lonely penguin appears in Antarctica during the southern hemisphere’s summer season. The temperature in northern Antarctica hit nearly 65 degrees. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Jana, File)

It was nearly two degrees higher than the previous record of 67.64 degrees set 37 years ago.

The reading was taken at a monitoring station on Seymour Island, which is part of a chain of the islands on the Antarctica Peninsula — the northernmost part of the continent.

Schaefer said the reading was a single data point, so they’re not able to determine if it’s a trend that will continue in the future.

“We can’t use this to anticipate climatic changes in the future. It’s a data point,” Schaefer said, according to the television network. “It’s simply a signal that something different is happening in that area.”

ANTARCTICA APPEARS TO HAVE BROKEN A HEAT RECORD

Antarctica also experienced record heat last week, recording a temperature of nearly 65 degrees on the continent’s northernmost peninsula.

Scientists at Terrantar, a government project that monitors climate change on the continent, said the record temperatures are most likely attributed to changes in ocean currents.

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“We have climatic changes in the atmosphere, which is closely related to changes in permafrost and the ocean,” they said, according to the Guardian.

Westlake Legal Group AP20038812357769 Antarctica temperatures reach 69 degrees for the first time ever, scientists say fox-news/world/environment/climate-change fox-news/weather fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc David Aaro c22fb12b-507c-56c8-b270-07908151309b article   Westlake Legal Group AP20038812357769 Antarctica temperatures reach 69 degrees for the first time ever, scientists say fox-news/world/environment/climate-change fox-news/weather fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc David Aaro c22fb12b-507c-56c8-b270-07908151309b article

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Gigantic sea wall could defend New York from future storms, US Army study claims

If New York built a massive, multibillion dollar sea wall in the ocean, could it safeguard 8.6 million people from storm surges similar to Hurricane Sandy in 2012?

A 6-mile-long wall is one of the options being studied by the Army Corps of Engineers as the goverment rethinks how to protect New York City’s vulnerable and valuable coastline from destructive storms.

According to the Corps report, a gigantic wall built out in the outer New York Harbor would cost $119 billion and take 25 years to construct. Experts have mixed opinions about the feasibility and overall effectiveness of such a barrier.

Catherine McVay Hughes, who led the community board in lower Manhattan during Hurricane Sandy, supports the idea building out in the harbor as opposed to near to coastline, telling The New York Times: “Do we want a 20- or 30-foot wall between Battery Park and the river?”

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Westlake Legal Group hurricane-sandy Gigantic sea wall could defend New York from future storms, US Army study claims fox-news/science/planet-earth/oceans fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox-news/science fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article 5f6c045a-3ab6-5267-93d1-536d01990549

Cars piled on top of each other at the entrance to a garage on South Willliam Street in Lower Manhattan October 31, 2012 in New York as the city begins to clean up after Hurricane Sandy. AFP PHOTO/Stan HONDA (Photo credit should read STAN HONDA/AFP via Getty Images) (Getty Images)

Still, other advocates and experts believe it’s possible the barrier could be obsolete by the time it is finished — due to changing estimates of future sea level rise.

“These sea gates will not be able to protect communities from flooding caused by rising tides and rising sea levels, and once they’re built, that’s it,” Scott M. Stringer, the New York City comptroller, who in a recent letter to the Corps urged them to reshape the plans, told the Times. “We’re not going to get the money again.”

On Saturday, President Trump weighed in against the idea of building a sea wall.

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New York Mayor Bill de Blasio responded to Trump, writing: “We lost 44 of our neighbors in Hurricane Sandy. You should know, you lived here at the time. Your climate denial isn’t just dangerous to those you’ve sworn to protect — it’s deadly.”

Hurricane Sandy was the second-costliest storm on record in the United States, inflicting nearly $70 billion in damage and killing at least 233 people in eight countries. In New York, thousands of homes and an estimated 250,000 vehicles were destroyed, and all of the road tunnels into Manhattan were flooded.

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Westlake Legal Group hurricane-sandy Gigantic sea wall could defend New York from future storms, US Army study claims fox-news/science/planet-earth/oceans fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox-news/science fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article 5f6c045a-3ab6-5267-93d1-536d01990549   Westlake Legal Group hurricane-sandy Gigantic sea wall could defend New York from future storms, US Army study claims fox-news/science/planet-earth/oceans fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox-news/science fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article 5f6c045a-3ab6-5267-93d1-536d01990549

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Fires set stage for irreversible forest losses in Australia

Australia’s forests are burning at a rate unmatched in modern times and scientists say the landscape is being permanently altered as a warming climate brings profound changes to the island continent.

Heat waves and drought have fueled bigger and more frequent fires in parts of Australia, so far this season torching some 40,000 square miles (104,000 square kilometers), an area about as big as Ohio.

With blazes still raging in the country’s southeast, government officials are drawing up plans to reseed burned areas to speed up forest recovery that could otherwise take decades or even centuries.

But some scientists and forestry experts doubt that reseeding and other intervention efforts can match the scope of the destruction. The fires since September have killed 28 people and burned more than 2,600 houses.

Before the recent wildfires, ecologists divided up Australia’s native vegetation into two categories: fire-adapted landscapes that burn periodically, and those that don’t burn. In the recent fires, that distinction lost meaning — even rainforests and peat swamps caught fire, likely changing them forever.

Westlake Legal Group climate-change-australia-2 Fires set stage for irreversible forest losses in Australia fox-news/travel/regions/australia fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fnc/science fnc Associated Press article 2bfe00a9-390d-5d01-abcc-ca95d85a5237

This 2009 photo provided by Sebastian Pfautsch shows a eucalyptus forest that burned during a 2009 wildfire in Victoria, Australia. As of early 2020, fires have consumed some 40,000 square miles of Australia this fire season and scientists say the effects on the nation’s forests could be long-lasting. (Sebastian Pfautsch via AP)

Flames have blazed through jungles dried out by drought, such as Eungella National Park, where shrouds of mist have been replaced by smoke.

“Anybody would have said these forests don’t burn, that there’s not enough material and they are wet. Well they did,” said forest restoration expert Sebastian Pfautsch, a research fellow at Western Sydney University.

“Climate change is happening now, and we are seeing the effects of it,” he said.

High temperatures, drought and more frequent wildfires — all linked to climate change — may make it impossible for even fire-adapted forests to be fully restored, scientists say.

“The normal processes of recovery are going to be less effective, going to take longer,” said Roger Kitching, an ecologist at Griffith University in Queensland. “Instead of an ecosystem taking a decade, it may take a century or more to recover, all assuming we don’t get another fire season of this magnitude soon.”

Young stands of mountain ash trees — which are not expected to burn because they have minimal foliage — have burned in the Australian Alps, the highest mountain range on the continent. Fire this year wiped out stands reseeded following fires in 2013.

Mountain ash, the world’s tallest flowering trees, reach heights of almost 90 meters (300 feet) and live hundreds of years. They’re an iconic presence in southeast Australia, comparable to the redwoods of Northern California, and are highly valued by the timber industry.

Westlake Legal Group climate-change-australia-3 Fires set stage for irreversible forest losses in Australia fox-news/travel/regions/australia fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fnc/science fnc Associated Press article 2bfe00a9-390d-5d01-abcc-ca95d85a5237

This January 2008 photo provided by Sebastian Pfautsch shows new shoots emerging from the bark of a eucalyptus tree following a wildfire near Mansfield, Victoria, Australia. Many of Australia’s forests are adapted to fire, but more frequent blazes due to climate change can slow or halt their recovery. (Sebastian Pfautsch via AP)

“I’m expecting major areas of (tree) loss this year, mainly because we will not have sufficient seed to sow them,” said Owen Bassett of Forest Solutions, a private company that works with government agencies to reseed forests by helicopter following fires.

Bassett plans to send out teams to climb trees in parts of Victoria that did not burn to harvest seed pods. But he expects to get at most a ton of seeds this year, about one-tenth of what he said is needed.

Fire is a normal part of an ash forest life cycle, clearing out older stands to make way for new growth. But the extent and intensity of this year’s fires left few surviving trees in many areas.

Already ash forests in parts of Victoria had been hit by wildfire every four to five years, allowing less marketable tree species to take over or meadows to form.

“If a young ash forest is burned and killed and we can’t resow it, then it is lost,” Bassett said.

The changing landscape has major implications for Australia’s diverse wildlife. The fires in Eungella National Park, for example, threaten “frogs and reptiles that don’t live anywhere else,” said University of Queensland ecologist Diana Fisher.

Fires typically burn through the forest in a patchwork pattern, leaving unburned refuges from which plant and animal species can spread. However, megafires are consuming everything in their path and leaving little room for that kind of recovery, said Griffith University’s Kitching.

In both Australia and western North America, climate experts say, fires will continue burning with increased frequency as warming temperatures and drier weather transform ecosystems .

The catastrophic scale of blazes in so many places offers the “clearest signal yet” that climate change is driving fire activity, said Leroy Westerling, a fire science professor at the University of Alberta.

“It’s in Canada, California, Greece, Portugal, Australia,” Westerling said. “This portends what we can expect — a new reality. I prefer not to use the term ‘new normal’… This is more like a downward spiral.”

Forests can shift locations over time. However, that typically unfolds over thousands of years, not the decades over which the climate has been warming.

Most of the nearly 25,000 square miles (64,000 square kilometers) that have burned in Victoria and New South Wales has been forest, according to scientists in New South Wales and the Victorian government.

By comparison, an average of about 1,600 square miles (4,100 square kilometers) of forest burned annually in Australia dating to 2002, according to data compiled by NASA research scientist Niels Andela and University of Maryland research professor Louis Giglio.

Unlike grasslands, which see the vast majority of Australia’s huge annual wildfire damage, forests are unable to regenerate in a couple of years. “For forests, we’re talking about decades, particularly in more arid climates,” Andela said.

Most forested areas can be expected to eventually regenerate, said Owen Price, a senior research fellow at the University of Wollongong specializing in bushfire risk management. But he said repeated fires will make it more likely that some will become grasslands or open woodlands.

Price and others have started thinking up creative ways to combat the changes, such as installing sprinkler systems in rainforests to help protect them against drought and fire, or shutting down forested areas to all visitors during times of high fire danger to prevent accidental ignitions.

Officials may also need to radically rethink accepted forest management practices,. said Pfautsch, the researcher from Western Sydney.

That could involve planting trees in areas where they might not be suitable now but would be in 50 years as climate change progresses.

“We cannot expect species will move 200 kilometers (125 miles) to reach a cooler climate,” said Pfautsch. “It’s not looking like there’s a reversal trend in any of this. It’s only accelerating.”

Westlake Legal Group climate-change-australia-1 Fires set stage for irreversible forest losses in Australia fox-news/travel/regions/australia fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fnc/science fnc Associated Press article 2bfe00a9-390d-5d01-abcc-ca95d85a5237   Westlake Legal Group climate-change-australia-1 Fires set stage for irreversible forest losses in Australia fox-news/travel/regions/australia fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fnc/science fnc Associated Press article 2bfe00a9-390d-5d01-abcc-ca95d85a5237

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Significant Mount Everest ice loss revealed in spy satellite images

The glaciers around Mount Everest have lost a significant amount of ice — about 8 inches per year, according to declassified spy satellite photographs.

Researchers were able to produce digital surface-elevation models of the glaciers using decades-old images — along with newly collected data — to create a comprehensive record of ice melt.

The glaciers along Mount Everest’s flanks had shrunk significantly from the top down from 1962 to 2018, according to research presented recently at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Live Science reported.

“When we now look at the entire area, we see a clear increase in mass loss while it was in the period of 1962 to 1969, around 20 centimeters [8 inches] per year,” Tobias Bolch, a lecturer for remote sensing with the School of Geography and Sustainable Development at the U.K.’s University of St. Andrews, told the publication.

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Westlake Legal Group mount-everest-getty Significant Mount Everest ice loss revealed in spy satellite images fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox-news/science/planet-earth fox-news/science fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article 9b141207-08f7-5533-989f-50df70b4b54f

Summits of Mt. Everest and Mt. Makalu, seen from summit of Gokyo Ri, before sunrise in September 2019. (Photo by Frank Bienewald/LightRocket via Getty Images) (Getty Images)

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The researchers discovered that Rongbuk and Khumbu glaciers, where Everest base camps for climbers and hikers are located, had thinned by more than 260 feet over 60 years, while Imja Glacier lost more than 300 feet of ice during the same timespan.

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In the 1950s, American intelligence services wanted to spy on the Soviet Union, and a secret satellite surveillance mission launched in 1960, according to the CIA. Locations across Eastern Europe and Asia were photographed by the effort, which was led by the CIA and the U.S. Air Force.

The program reportedly produced more than 800,000 images, including views of the Himalayas.

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Liberty Vittert: End climate change zealotry – rancor prevents progress on the real issues

Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6075739403001_6075693897001-vs Liberty Vittert: End climate change zealotry – rancor prevents progress on the real issues Liberty Vittert fox-news/us/environment/climate-change fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox-news/opinion fox news fnc/opinion fnc article 6e49d099-4849-51ee-bd76-7e994231c458

The Royal Statistical Society announced the Statistic of the Decade as “8.4 million.” The estimated accumulated deforestation of the Amazon rainforest over the past decade is equivalent to around 8.4 million soccer fields (about 10.3 million football fields). That is the size of Connecticut, Hawaii, New Jersey and Massachusetts.

We – I’m a member of the judging panel – also decided to have a highly commended statistic of the decade of “19 percent.” The global death rate from air pollution fell by 19 percent over the past decade (and by over 42 percent since 1990).

While whether we are doing enough to curb pollution remains a fiercely contested topic, we decided that it was important to shine a light on the fact that there are certainly positive developments. While many may think that air quality is getting worse, the number of deaths caused by air pollution has actually fallen.

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And I think these two statistics chosen by the Royal Statistical Society actually highlight the crux of the issue with environmental concerns, pollution and climate change as a whole.

The deforestation of the Amazon is a very serious issue. Any short-term financial gain is absolutely blown out of the water by the long-term financial and environmental loss. But the environment and climate change are complicated issues and by only focusing on the impending doom (of which there is certainly truth), we tend to ignore, and in fact, brush off the positive developments.

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The level of religious fervor surrounding the environment, and specifically climate change, has made scientific discourse almost impossible. I wrote an article last summer simply asking for the calls of “death in 12 years” and “hottest month ever” to be halted in exchange for a less sensationalized view of the climate crisis (of which I firmly believe there is one). I was ridiculed by many of my scientific peers, my credentials were called into question, and I was actually called “disgusting” by a statistician I used to work with.  And I’m small fries!

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Freeman Dyson, one of the most famous and well-respected physicists of his generation (with 21 honorary degrees from universities like Georgetown, Princeton and Oxford), was ostracized by his former community for simply questioning some of the climate change forecasts.  Are Dyson’s assertions correct? No idea, but I think he deserves to be listened to. And Dyson isn’t the only one.

By dogmatically ignoring any positive changes, and sensationalizing the negative ones, I don’t see how we can realistically move forward in addressing the actual issues that are and will be occurring due to climate change. I mean, come on, I recently read an article in the Atlantic saying that climate change deniers are the equivalent of racists.

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If we have any hope of stopping the very real and significant climate issues we face, we have to remove the political element, reduce the religious fervor, and come together over the issues instead of participating in the dismissal culture (on both sides).

The deforestation of the Amazon’s effect on the environment is the international statistic of the decade for a reason: it has terrible consequences. But, I believe the Royal Statistical Society was also correct to highlight the 19 percent drop in the death rate from air pollution. The rancor needs to end, and collaboration needs to happen if we have any chance of preventing and mitigating future destruction.

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Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6075739403001_6075693897001-vs Liberty Vittert: End climate change zealotry – rancor prevents progress on the real issues Liberty Vittert fox-news/us/environment/climate-change fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox-news/opinion fox news fnc/opinion fnc article 6e49d099-4849-51ee-bd76-7e994231c458   Westlake Legal Group 694940094001_6075739403001_6075693897001-vs Liberty Vittert: End climate change zealotry – rancor prevents progress on the real issues Liberty Vittert fox-news/us/environment/climate-change fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox-news/opinion fox news fnc/opinion fnc article 6e49d099-4849-51ee-bd76-7e994231c458

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Alaskan glacier seen shrinking over time in incredible new images

The retreat of Alaska’s Columbia glacier over the last 47 years can be seen in a new series of incredible images.

As Science News reports, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey have been capturing images of Earth since 1972, which is a record of images that allows researchers to examine the progression of ice over time.

That progression includes the flow and retreat of glaciers, large chunks of ice calving off and more, University of Alaska glaciologist Mark Fahestock told the outlet.

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Westlake Legal Group alaska-glacier Alaskan glacier seen shrinking over time in incredible new images fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc fcba64d0-6b07-5cee-af9a-1ef22eb56bc6 Christopher Carbone article

This false-color image of Alaska’s Columbia glacier was taken in July 2014. (NASA Earth Observatory images by Lauren Dauphin, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey)

Fahestock and his colleagues chose Landsat images of several glaciers, including the Columbia glacier, and made them into a short movie.

The resulting video shows that the glacier has retreated by more than 20 kilometers since about 1980.

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The images were presented at the American Geophysical Union’s annual meeting on Tuesday.

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Westlake Legal Group alaska-glacier Alaskan glacier seen shrinking over time in incredible new images fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc fcba64d0-6b07-5cee-af9a-1ef22eb56bc6 Christopher Carbone article   Westlake Legal Group alaska-glacier Alaskan glacier seen shrinking over time in incredible new images fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc fcba64d0-6b07-5cee-af9a-1ef22eb56bc6 Christopher Carbone article

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Greenland ice melt ‘is accelerating,’ new study reveals

The Greenland ice sheet’s losses have accelerated dramatically since the 1990s and it’s now losing more than seven times as much ice per year, according to a new study.

The new assessment comes from an international group of 89 scientists that reviewed satellite observations over a 26-year period.

According to their research, published Tuesday in the journal Nature, Greenland’s contribution to overall sea-level rise is now tracking at what had been seen as a pessimistic projection of the future.

This means an additional 7 centimeters (2.7 inches) of ocean rise could be expected by the end of the century just from Greenland, experts say.

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Westlake Legal Group greenland-ice-getty Greenland ice melt 'is accelerating,' new study reveals fox-news/science/planet-earth/oceans fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone c7b2b1b8-f6b7-5741-b821-621945feb635 article

A new study shows that Greenland’s ice sheet is melting at a faster rate. (Getty Images)

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“The simple formula is that around the planet, six million people are brought into a flooding situation for every centimeter of sea-level rise. So, when you hear about a centimeter rise, it does have an impact,” Andy Shepherd, of Leeds University, told BBC News.

The group of scientists reanalyzed data from 11 satellite missions flown from 1992 to 2018 — looking at repeat messurements of the ice sheet’s thickness, flow and gravity, BBC News reports.

Greenland, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, is the world’s largest island. The gigantic ice sheet that covers the island is over a mile thick at the center.

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Climate scientists try to cut their own carbon footprints

For years, Kim Cobb was the Indiana Jones of climate science. The Georgia Tech professor flew to the caves of Borneo to study ancient and current climate conditions. She jetted to a remote South Pacific island to see the effects of warming on coral.

Add to that flights to Paris, Rome, Vancouver and elsewhere. All told, in the last three years, she’s flown 29 times to study, meet or talk about global warming.

Then Cobb thought about how much her personal actions were contributing to the climate crisis, so she created a spreadsheet. She found that those flights added more than 73,000 pounds of heat-trapping carbon to the air.

Now she is about to ground herself, and she is not alone. Some climate scientists and activists are limiting their flying, their consumption of meat and their overall carbon footprints to avoid adding to the global warming they study. Cobb will fly just once next year, to attend a massive international science meeting in Chile.

“People want to be part of the solution,” she said. “Especially when they spent their whole lives with their noses stuck up against” data showing the problem.

The issue divides climate scientists and activists and plays out on social media. Texas Tech’s Katharine Hayhoe, an atmospheric scientist who flies once a month, often to talk to climate doubters in the evangelical Christian movement, was blasted on Twitter because she keeps flying.

Hayhoe and other still-flying scientists note that aviation is only 3% of global carbon emissions.

Jonathan Foley, executive director of the climate solutions think-tank Project Drawdown, limits his airline trips but will not stop flying because, he says, he must meet with donors to keep his organization alive. He calls flight shaming “the climate movement eating its own.”

Over the next couple of weeks, climate scientists and environmental advocates will fly across the globe. Some will be jetting to Madrid for United Nations climate negotiations. Others, including Cobb, will fly to San Francisco for a major earth sciences conference, her last for a while.

“I feel real torn about that,” said Indiana University’s Shahzeen Attari, who studies human behavior and climate change. She calls Cobb an important climate communicator. “I don’t want to clip her wings.”

But Cobb and Hayhoe are judged by their audiences on how much energy they use themselves, Attari said.

Attari’s research shows that audiences are turned off by scientists who use lots of energy at home. Listeners are more likely to respond to experts who use less electricity.

“It’s like having an overweight doctor giving you dieting advice,” Attari said. She found that scientists who fly to give talks bother people less.

In science, flying is “deeply embedded in how we do academic work,” said Steven Allen, a management researcher at the University of Sheffield, who recently organized a symposium aimed at reducing flying in academia. He said the conference went well, with 60 people participating remotely from 12 countries.

Pennsylvania State University’s Michael Mann, who flies but less than he used to, said moderation is key.

“I don’t tell people they need to become childless, off-the-grid hermits. And I’m not one myself,” Mann said in an email. “I do tell people that individual action is PART of the solution, and that there are many things we can do in our everyday lives that save us money, make us healthier, make us feel better about ourselves AND decrease our environmental footprint. Why wouldn’t we do those things?”

Mann said he gets his electricity from renewables, drives a hybrid vehicle, doesn’t eat meat and has one child.

When Hayhoe flies, she makes sure to bundle in several lectures and visits into one flight, including 30 talks in Alaska in one five-day trip. She said more people come out to see a lecture than if it were given remotely, and she also learns from talking to the people at lectures.

“They need a catalyst to get to the next step and me coming could be that catalyst,” Hayhoe said.

Marshall Shepherd of the University of Georgia will receive a climate communications award at the American Geophysical Union conference Wednesday in San Francisco. But he won’t pick it up in person, saving 1.2 tons of carbon by not flying. He said he doesn’t judge those who fly but wrote about his decision to stay grounded in hopes that people “think about choices and all of the nuances involved in these decisions.”

Former Vice President Al Gore, who has long been criticized by those who reject climate science for his personal energy use, said he has installed 1,000 solar panels at his farm, eats a vegan diet and drives an electric vehicle.

“As important as it to change lightbulbs,” he said in an email, “it is far more important to change the policies and laws in the nation and places where we live.”

Teen activist Greta Thunberg drew attention when she took a zero-carbon sailboat across the Atlantic instead of flying.

“I’m not telling anyone else what to do or what not to do,” Thunberg told The Associated Press before her return boat trip. “I want to put focus on the fact that you basically can’t live sustainable today. It’s practically impossible.”

Cobb is trying. In 2017, she started biking to work instead of driving. She’s installed solar panels, dries clothes on a line, composts and gave up meat. All these made her feel better, physically and mentally, and gave her more hope that people can do enough to curb the worst of climate change.

But when she did the math, she found “all of this stuff is very small compared to flying.”

Cobb began turning down flights and offering to talk remotely. This year she passed on 11 flights, including Paris, Beijing and Sydney.

“There hasn’t been a single step I have taken that has not brought me a deeper appreciation for what we’re up against and what’s possible,” Cobb said. “This gave me a profound appreciation for how individual action connects to collective action.”

But there’s a cost.

Cobb was invited to be the plenary speaker wrapping up a major ocean sciences conference next year in San Diego. It’s a plum role. Cobb asked organizers if she could do it remotely. They said no. She promised to do many roles for the conference from Atlanta. Conference organizers withdrew the offer.

Brooks Hanson, executive vice president of the American Geophysical Union, which runs the conference, said in an email that the group supports remote presentations whenever possible. But the wrap-up speaker position “requires in-person interactions with attendees to get the vibe of the meeting and discussions,” Hanson said.

Foley said that shows the problem: “Climate scientists and activists should walk the walk. But we can only walk so far. Then you bump into other things.”

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‘Snowball Earth’ discovery: Experts reveal how life survived prehistoric ice age

Nearly 600 million years ago, a massive ice age radically altered the planet’s climate, resulting in a “Snowball Earth.” Now, researchers believe they have discovered how early animals on this planet survived — and thrived — during the colossal event.

Known as the Cryogenian Period, the era lasted from approximately 720 million to 635 million years ago, severely constricting the oxygen supply on the planet. But the researchers from McGill University found that the meltwater from the glaciers created pockets of oxygen in the oceans, which let life thrive until the ice age ended and they were able to emerge.

“The evidence suggests that although much of the oceans during the deep freeze would have been uninhabitable due to a lack of oxygen, in areas where the grounded ice sheet begins to float there was a critical supply of oxygenated meltwater,” the study’s lead author, Maxwell Lechte, said in a statement. “This trend can be explained by what we call a ‘glacial oxygen pump’; air bubbles trapped in the glacial ice are released into the water as it melts, enriching it with oxygen.”

Westlake Legal Group snowball-earth-1 'Snowball Earth' discovery: Experts reveal how life survived prehistoric ice age fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc db6aefd2-18c5-57ca-a2a3-02a0c87b355a Chris Ciaccia article

(Credit: NASA)

600M-YEAR-OLD ICE AGE CAUSED ‘SNOWBALL EARTH,’ RADICALLY CHANGING PLANET’S CLIMATE

Lechte and the other researchers looked at the chemistry of the iron formations in ancient rocks that were left behind by glacial deposits in Australia, Namibia and California.

“The fact that the global freeze occurred before the evolution of complex animals suggests a link between Snowball Earth and animal evolution,” Lechte added. “These harsh conditions could have stimulated their diversification into more complex forms.”

Researchers had previously thought that life may have existed in meltwater puddles on the surface.

Lechte added that even though the study focused on the availability of oxygen, primitive organisms known as eukaryotes would have also needed food to survive the “Snowball Earth,” meaning further research is needed to determine how they were able to sustain.

The study has been published in the scientific journal PNAS.

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Westlake Legal Group snowball-earth-1 'Snowball Earth' discovery: Experts reveal how life survived prehistoric ice age fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc db6aefd2-18c5-57ca-a2a3-02a0c87b355a Chris Ciaccia article   Westlake Legal Group snowball-earth-1 'Snowball Earth' discovery: Experts reveal how life survived prehistoric ice age fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc db6aefd2-18c5-57ca-a2a3-02a0c87b355a Chris Ciaccia article

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Gigantic tsunami pushed boulders as heavy as tanks inland, scientists say

A powerful tsunami with 49-foot waves that tossed boulders as heavy as tanks inundated Oman about 1,000 years ago, scientists say.

Scientists from several international universities have found multiple large boulders that were apparently carried inland amid the catastrophic event.

“There we identified 41 large boulders, which were apparently carried inland by the force of the water,” Gösta Hoffmann, from the Institute for Geosciences at the University of Bonn, said in a statement.

Westlake Legal Group boulder-tsunami-anne-zacke Gigantic tsunami pushed boulders as heavy as tanks inland, scientists say fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article 512d30ff-7818-5784-9094-52b3886d25d9

The largest of these rocks weighs about 100 metric tons, which is more than a Leopard tank. On the rock: Magdalena Rupprechter, GUtech, Oman; to the right: Gösta Hoffmann, University of Bonn. (Anne Zacke) (Anne Zacke)

WAS SAME-SEX BEHAVIOR IN ANIMALS HARDWIRED FROM THE BEGINNING?

Researchers believe that some of the boulders were formed when the tsunami destroyed parts of the cliffs along a particular strip of coastal Oman. The largest boulder weighed in at about 220,000 pounds.

Quartz crystals in the rock allowed scientists to determine how long the boulders have been in the spot where they were found. “Many of these measurements gave us a value of about 1,000 years,” said Hoffmann.

The study, which will be published in the journal Marine Geology, also suggests that tension in the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates beneath the Arabian Sea can build up and be unleashed very fast.

Westlake Legal Group tsunami-story-univerity-of-bonn Gigantic tsunami pushed boulders as heavy as tanks inland, scientists say fox-news/science/planet-earth/climate fox news fnc/science fnc Christopher Carbone article 512d30ff-7818-5784-9094-52b3886d25d9

Klaus Reicherter from the University of Aachen examines a boulder that the tsunami carried onto the cliffs. (Gösta Hoffmann/Uni Bonn) (Gösta Hoffmann/Uni Bonn)

“It is therefore extremely important that a tsunami early warning system is put in place for this region,” the geologist said.

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