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Westlake Legal Group > Posts tagged "Garcetti, Eric M"

California’s Coronavirus Shutdowns Set the Tone. What’s Its Next Step?

Westlake Legal Group californias-coronavirus-shutdowns-set-the-tone-whats-its-next-step California's Coronavirus Shutdowns Set the Tone. What's Its Next Step? San Francisco (Calif) Newsom, Gavin Los Angeles (Calif) Garcetti, Eric M Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) California
Westlake Legal Group 00virus-california01-facebookJumbo California's Coronavirus Shutdowns Set the Tone. What's Its Next Step? San Francisco (Calif) Newsom, Gavin Los Angeles (Calif) Garcetti, Eric M Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) California

SAN FRANCISCO — California has been ahead of the rest of America in confronting the coronavirus pandemic, locking down its citizens early and avoiding, so far, the worst-case scenarios predicted for infections and deaths.

But as the national conversation begins to shift to reopening and President Trump beats the drum of economic revival, California’s extremely cautious approach toward the virus is a measure of how complicated it will be to restart the country.

“We’re not going to flip the switch and suddenly have the economy return to what it was and everyone come out of their homes simultaneously,” Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles said in an interview. “People’s physical interactions, people’s spatial understandings, people’s risk-taking will come slowly.”

As America’s premier gateway to China, California was, early in the pandemic, seen as one of the most vulnerable to the spread of the virus. In January close to 600 direct flights from China carrying around 150,000 people landed in the state, more than twice as many as landed in New York.

But two and a half months after the first cases were detected in Southern California, scientists are scrambling to explain the California conundrum: The state, despite its large, globe-traveling population, ranks 30th in the nation in coronavirus deaths per capita and has a fraction of the mortality rate that New York and New Jersey have suffered. As of Monday, San Francisco had recorded 15 deaths.

Much remains unknown about the coronavirus, and experts are still trying to understand why it is affecting some areas more than others. But figuring out why it has spread much less intensely in America’s largest state than initially feared will be important in planning next steps, experts say.

As it has with so many other policies, California went its own way on confronting the virus. In moving toward recovery its leaders are inching forward, having repeatedly said that success can quickly turn to failure.

How the nation’s largest economy calibrates the reopening will have huge ramifications for the rest of the country, providing examples of what works, and what doesn’t, especially given limits on testing capacity.

Gov. Gavin Newsom was scheduled on Tuesday to lay out a strategy for a coordinated and gradual approach to lifting some of the shelter-in-place orders, one that he said would be based on facts and science, phrasing that amounted to a veiled rebuke of the Trump administration.

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The reasons for the early promising signs in California are numerous, experts say. The state was the first to implement stay-at-home measures, and even before the orders came down, Californians were beginning to keep their distance from one another, while New Yorkers were still packing bars and restaurants.

Other factors include a work-from-home culture at many companies, spurred by the tech industry; a dry and sunny February that brought people away from crowded spaces and into the outdoors; and even the fact that the San Francisco 49ers lost the Super Bowl, avoiding a crowded victory parade.

California’s deep experience confronting natural disasters has also helped it address the pandemic. Not only does the state have a vast government machinery in place to handle disasters, but its populace has experience following orders at a time of calamity.

A number of experts are advancing another explanation, too: features that have long been viewed as liabilities — the state’s solitary car culture and traffic-jammed freeways, a dearth of public transportation and sprawling suburban neighborhoods — may have been protective.

“Life in California is much more spread out,” said Eleazar Eskin, chair of the department of computational medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. “Single-family homes compared with apartment buildings, work spaces that are less packed and even seating in restaurants that is more spacious.”

Many scientific studies have found a correlation between population density and the spread of flu and other infectious diseases, something that may exist for the coronavirus as well.

Moritz Kraemer, a scholar at Oxford University, conducted a study with 12 other scientists across the world that relies on data from China. The study, which has not yet completed peer review, shows that more crowded areas had both higher per-capita coronavirus infections and more prolonged epidemics.

“The more space you have, the less probability there is for transmission,” said Professor Kraemer, who is also leading a team of researchers in mapping the global spread of the virus.

Credit…Kendrick Brinson for The New York Times
Credit…Kendrick Brinson for The New York Times

But California still has numerous weak points, and experts stress that density is only one of many factors in the spread of a disease that is still poorly understood.

Nursing homes and other settings where people congregate have been hit hard. The authorities discovered 91 cases at a single homeless shelter in San Francisco.

Jeffrey Shaman, a professor of environmental health sciences at Columbia University, where he has been deeply involved in modeling the spread of the disease, said it was likely that some aspects of West Coast culture helped dampen the early spread of the virus. But that does not argue, he said, for car congestion as a cure-all.

Some experts like George Rutherford, a professor of epidemiology at the University of California, San Francisco, put more emphasis on early government action in mitigating the spread of the virus. Dr. Rutherford said the nation’s first stay-at-home orders by officials in the San Francisco Bay Area, led by the Santa Clara chief health officer, Dr. Sara Cody, were crucial.

“That’s where the credit belongs,” Dr. Rutherford said.

Dr. Rutherford pointed out that his commute on mass transit in the Bay Area resembled one in New York City more than in Los Angeles.

“I easily come within 6 feet of 200 people a day,” he said.

Yet even in San Francisco, the nation’s second-densest major city, cars are much more common than in New York. San Francisco has one vehicle for every two people, compared with New York where the ratio is one to four, according to data from the Department of Motor Vehicles.

Experts say understanding the dynamics of spread will be crucial for the next phases of the pandemic, as the authorities look for ways to open up the economy while avoiding a wide-scale and deadly second wave of the disease.

Mr. Garcetti, the Los Angeles mayor, has been guided by history, spending his nights and weekends studying how California cities responded to the 1918 flu pandemic. One of his key takeaways is that acting too soon to reopen could be disastrous, citing a second wave of infections in 1918 that proved more deadly than the first.

In 1918, “L.A. acted quickly and kept with it,” he said. In contrast, San Francisco, he said, “had also done really well but then came out of it too quick, and had a second spike in the short term, which killed a lot of people.”

Epidemiologists say transmission dynamics will differ by state, city and neighborhood.

In a push to better understand the scope of people’s interactions, Dr. Eskin is leading a survey effort in California and beyond. The survey asks what symptoms the participant has experienced, if any, and the locations of the supermarkets and pharmacies where he or she goes.

“We want to give the public health authorities the data that they need for them to make decisions on when they should let people go back to work or the kids go back to school,” Dr. Eskin said.

But even as California officials consider data that shows the outbreak here is far less intense than initially feared, they are being cautious in predicting a loosening of restrictions anytime soon.

Mr. Garcetti, for instance, has been touting the idea of using wide-scale testing to determine who is immune, and then allowing them to resume some measure of normal life.

“The idea of folks having an immunity passport, or something that allows them to be able to work, certainly would accelerate for me our economic recovery and my ability as mayor to lift the orders for some people,” he said recently.

But that plan would require wide-scale testing, which California does not have.

An immunity passport, Mr. Garcetti said, is “still a while off.”

Adam Nagourney contributed reporting from Los Angeles and Matt Richtel from San Francisco.

Real Estate, and Personal Injury Lawyers. Contact us at: https://westlakelegal.com 

The East Coast, Always in the Spotlight, Owes a Debt to the West

Westlake Legal Group 12virus-coast1-facebookJumbo The East Coast, Always in the Spotlight, Owes a Debt to the West Politics and Government Newsom, Gavin Inslee, Jay Governors (US) Garcetti, Eric M Cuomo, Andrew M Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Brown, Kate (1960- ) Breed, London

LOS ANGELES — California, Oregon and Washington have more ventilators than they can use. As the nation struggles to scrounge up the lifesaving machines for hospitals overrun with Covid-19 patients, these three Western states recently shipped 1,000 spares to New York and other besieged neighbors to the East.

“All NYC needs is love …. From CA,” a worker scrawled in Magic Marker on a ventilator shipping box, shown in a video posted on Twitter by the governor of California, Gavin Newsom.

The ongoing effort of three West Coast states to come to the aid of more hard-hit parts of the nation has emerged as the most powerful indication to date that the early intervention of West Coast governors and mayors might have mitigated, at least for now, the medical catastrophe that has befallen New York and parts of the Midwest and South.

Their aggressive imposition of stay-at-home orders has stood in contrast to the relatively slower actions in New York and elsewhere, and drawn widespread praise from epidemiologists. As of Saturday afternoon, there had been 8,627 Covid-19 related deaths in New York, compared with 598 in California, 483 in Washington and 48 in Oregon. New York had 44 deaths per 100,000 people. California had two.

But these accomplishments have been largely obscured by the political attention and praise directed to New York, and particularly its governor, Andrew M. Cuomo. His daily briefings — informed and reassuring — have drawn millions of viewers and mostly flattering media commentary. They have established him as a daily counterpoint to President Trump and even prompted Democratic daydreaming that he could be drafted as their presidential nominee.

“Cuomo is just extraordinary to watch: He’s so real and authentic,” said Dr. Robert M. Wachter, the chairman of the department of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. “But when this history is written, you have to look at what the mayors here did, what the public officials did, what Newsom did, and say they saved thousands of lives.”

This disparity in perception reflects a longstanding dynamic in America politics: The concentration of media and commentators in Washington and New York has often meant that what happens in the West is overlooked or minimized. It is a function of the time difference — the three Pacific states are three hours behind New York — and the sheer physical distance. Jerry Brown, the former governor of California, a Democrat, found that his own attempts to run for president were complicated by the state where he worked and lived.

“News in this country flows east to west, always has and always will, but political and cultural movements flow west to east,” said Averell Smith, a longtime Democratic strategist who how worked in campaigns nationwide and grew up in San Francisco, where his father was the district attorney.

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The different responses that have been on display during these difficult weeks also illustrate the cultural, political and philosophical ways in which California, Washington and Oregon are distinct from the rest of the nation, a trend that has only accelerated since President Trump was sworn in.

California and Mr. Newsom have been under fire for delays in developing tests for the virus; New York has far outpaced California in testing potential victims. But the six Bay Area counties, including San Francisco, announced shelter in place orders on March 16. Mayor Eric Garcetti issued a stay at home order for the city of Los Angeles on March 19. Later that day, Mr. Newsom issued a statewide stay-at-home order.

Mr. Cuomo, who earlier that week had resisted a call from Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York to issue a stay-at-home order, followed a day later for New York — but that not take effect until March 22. Epidemiologists said that given the speed with which the virus spread and the density of parts of New York City, that delay was troubling.

“I remember seeing Governor Cuomo on TV making comments about not wanting to take away people’s civil liberties,” said London Breed, the mayor of San Francisco. “I understand that, I totally understand that, But I don’t think that’s what we were doing. I know the information I had. It showed me the best-case and worst-case scenarios and provided the guidance to avoid the worst-case scenarios.”

“I think we’re going to look back and see that issuing this order had a tremendous impact on the number of people who have been infected, and also the number of people who died,” she said.

The West Coast is different than the East Coast in many ways.

There are few cities on the Pacific with the sort of population density as skyscraper-filled New York and other metropolitan parts of the northeast.

And the mostly liberal politics of the west coast paved the way for
the kind of early interventionist policies that were until recently resisted in much of the country.

“There’s not a general sense that government is somehow the enemy rather than an essential part of life,” said Janet Napolitano, the former governor of Arizona who is now the president of University of California.

It is a region with a heavy concentration of tech industry engineers and executives, particularly in Washington, Oregon and, of course, Silicon Valley. The tech industry, including companies like Google and Apple, took the lead in having employees work from home. “We’re adept at understanding and accepting science,” said Gov. Jay Inslee of Washington. “Looking over the horizon at threats earlier than perhaps other parts of the nation.”

In Oregon, Gov. Kate Brown said she had been “blown away by how receptive Oregonians across the political spectrum” have been to the demands of the moment and she offered a theory as to why. “We’ve been preparing and thinking through these crises, and I do think at some level it permeates the public’s consciousness,” she said, citing the frequent natural disasters that have befallen her state.

And the Pacific states are more connected to Asia, with a large population of Asian immigrants, so the threat of a medical calamity in the Far East did not seem as remote as it might in Maine and Georgia. “We saw it a little bit earlier,” said Mr. Inslee. “There’s just geography: We’re closer to China.”

In Los Angeles, Mr. Garcetti said officials saw early warnings in the low attendance at the Lunar New Year parade in early February and the small crowds on the sidewalks in Chinatown. “I think we had an earlier sense that this might actually touch us,” he said. “We have planned for a long time for a pandemic.”

Shutting down an economy — in the fact of deep concerns of workers and the business community — is one of the most difficult decisions an elected official can make, as has become clear this month.

“It’s easy now to look at Newsom and London Breed and say, ‘of course,’” Mr. Wachter said. “But there was a lot of pushback at the time. If they had made the wrong bet, it would have been politically disastrous.”

“California and the Bay Area response is impressive because it was done before there were obvious and tangible risks,” he said. “New York acted in a more predictable way. Once it became clear it was real they took a step to lock down the place. In retrospect it was late, it was too late.”

Mr. Newsom said he had never thought California would be in a position where it would be giving away ventilators to other states. The idea of requiring people to stay at home was intended to slow the pace of the virus and give California officials time to find ventilators or refurbish ones in the state’s stockpile to prepare for a crush of patients.

“We never imagined we’d be in that privileged position,” the governor said. “Had we not done what we did, we would never have been in that position. Quite the contrary, we would have been calling on other states to help us.”

Evan Westrup, who was Mr. Brown’s senior communications adviser for eight years, said he had become resigned to California’s accomplishments often being overlooked in the rest of the nation. “There’s been little sustained national interest or coverage of California in recent years other than when the state is on fire, flooded or facing severe drought and/or attacking Trump. Los Angeles may as well be London to most editors in D.C. or New York.”

But if their prompt response has been overshadowed, Pacific Coast residents living through this crisis don’t seem to be giving that a lot of thought.

“This is a community that’s not self-obsessed and looking for recognition, adulation or credit,” said Bill Walton, the San Diego native, former UCLA basketball great and noted Pacific evangelist.

As for the attention to Mr. Cuomo, Mr. Inslee only praised his fellow governor, calling the nationally-televised briefings from Albany “really helpful to the whole country,” while expressing resignation about the disparity in coverage.

“We’re not going to change the direction the sun rises,” he said.

Real Estate, and Personal Injury Lawyers. Contact us at: https://westlakelegal.com 

New York Joins California as Millions More Americans Are Ordered to Stay Home

Westlake Legal Group new-york-joins-california-as-millions-more-americans-are-ordered-to-stay-home New York Joins California as Millions More Americans Are Ordered to Stay Home Trump, Donald J Shortages Newsom, Gavin New York State New York City Health Department (NYS) Garcetti, Eric M Cuomo, Andrew M Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) California
Westlake Legal Group merlin_170777988_3b2eb9be-9b11-4663-ae95-2bde5d532f00-facebookJumbo New York Joins California as Millions More Americans Are Ordered to Stay Home Trump, Donald J Shortages Newsom, Gavin New York State New York City Health Department (NYS) Garcetti, Eric M Cuomo, Andrew M Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) California

CHICAGO — America plunged into a deeper state of disruption and paralysis on Friday as New York and Illinois announced a broad series of measures aimed at keeping tens of millions of residents cloistered in their homes, following similar actions by California and a patchwork of restrictions from coast to coast.

The new, more stringent directives, in some of the country’s most populous states, were intended to slow the spread of the coronavirus that has swept across the country, sickening more than 17,000 people and claiming at least 214 lives. By the end of the weekend, at least 1 in 5 Americans will be under orders to stay home, and more states were expected to follow suit.

Increasingly severe shutdowns and restrictions on Americans’ movement — which public experts consider essential to reduce the alarming rate of infection — have turned much of the country quiet. Forty-five states have closed all their schools and the other five have closed at least some of them. Bars, restaurants and other gathering spots have been abruptly shuttered.

New York State has become the center of the outbreak, as its confirmed coronavirus cases have jumped to more than 7,000 and health officials have flagged with urgency a looming shortage of hospital beds and equipment. With 6 percent of the U.S. population, the state now accounts for over one-third of all confirmed cases in the country.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York on Friday announced what he called “the most drastic action we can take,” essentially ordering the nation’s largest city and the rest of his state into a protective crouch: All nonessential businesses were ordered closed by 8 p.m. on Sunday, setting up a stark new reality for some 19 million residents, who were told to stay home as the state went “on pause.”

New York officials have issued a lengthy list of businesses and services that would be allowed to stay open, including nuts-and-bolts governmental duties like code enforcement to more practical concerns like automotive repair, child care and computer support.

Basic functions like grocery shopping, walking the dog and getting medicine or exercise were still to be permitted, but little else in the way of normal life. “We need everyone to be safe,” Mr. Cuomo said, acknowledging the severe economic and psychological impact of such an order. “Otherwise no one can be safe.”

New York City’s public transit system would continue to run, but the city it travels through was profoundly transformed from its usually bustling, never-sleep energy: Its restaurants and bars were closed; its schools, museums and theaters dark; and its gaudy central mall — Times Square — quieter than it has been in decades.

Hours after the New York announcement, Illinois followed. Gov. J.B. Pritzker issued an order for the state’s more than 12 million residents to stay home, beginning Saturday at 5 p.m. “For the vast majority of you already taking precautions, your lives will not change very much,” Mr. Pritzker said.

The actions taken by the governors are the most robust and far-reaching yet, grinding major cities across the country to a standstill.

At the White House, President Trump said the United States had reached agreements with Mexico and Canada to in effect close the borders to slow the spread of the virus, and would halt all nonessential travel across those borders beginning at midnight on Saturday. Wall Street suffered another grim day on Friday with the S&P 500 falling more than 4 percent and the Dow Jones industrial average dropping 913 points, closing below where it stood before Mr. Trump was inaugurated.

The coronavirus pandemic has sickened more than 254,500 people in at least 154 countries. As of Friday afternoon, at least 10,472 people have died, more than half of them outside mainland China.


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The cascade of statewide restrictions began on Thursday night, when Gov. Gavin Newsom of California declared a broad stay-at-home order for his state’s 40 million residents, a directive that included exceptions for transportation workers, grocery stores, banks and laundromats, among others.

“Home isolation is not my preferred choice,” said Mr. Newsom, pleading with Californians to comply in order to save lives.

A large number of state workers — firefighters, police officers, prison guards — have been deemed essential and are exempted from the stay-at-home order, Mr. Newsom said. But his office is still assessing and negotiating with union officials to determine how many nonessential state employees will be allowed to work remotely.

States have continued to grapple with differing strategies to contain the virus. Washington State, which has been at the forefront of the outbreak, introduced some of the strongest restrictions earlier this month but has yet to adopt formal stay-at-home orders for the whole state. Gov. Jay Inslee said his office was continuing to evaluate that option but he cited potential economic impacts as a factor in the decision.

He criticized those who may still be leaving their homes for social reasons and issued his own command: “Stay home unless it’s necessary to go out.”

The stricter requirements were coupled with an unusual loosening of other rules around the nation. Chicago has already stopped issuing parking tickets and collecting fines. The federal government postponed a deadline for filing tax returns to July 15 from April 15. Mr. Trump on Friday said federal student loan payments would be paused for at least 60 days. The governor of Nebraska ordered a 30-day extension of the deadline to renew driver’s licenses.

Americans, barely adapting to their new lives under the coronavirus outbreak, struggled to understand what the shelter-in-place orders would mean in practical terms, and which businesses would be allowed to remain open.

Mr. Cuomo’s action on Friday on restricting nonessential personnel came days after the governor had also ordered state and local governments to let at least 50 percent of their workers stay home. And while exactly who was considered essential was left up to local leaders and heads of state agencies, officials say many local governments were only requiring law enforcement, public safety and public works employees to report to work as usual.

“These provisions will be enforced,” Mr. Cuomo said at a briefing in Albany. “These are not helpful hints.”

Mr. Cuomo’s newest restrictions take effect Sunday night.

But many of the decisions for what is and is not essential will be open to interpretation, and across California, cities were struggling on Friday to determine what had primacy: the statewide order or the ones issued by counties and cities.

In the Bay Area, the first region to get a shelter-in-place order, cities have spent the past week wrestling with the question of what can remain open, and the bureaucracy — or lack of it — for deciding borderline cases.

Grocery stores and pharmacies are obviously essential, but what about bike repair shops, which many people need for transportation, or cannabis dispensaries, whose goods many consider medicine? In Alameda County, which surrounds Oakland, cities have asked the county health department for guidance, which in turn told cities that the decision is left to individual businesses. Thus, some establishments are closing, others are not, and cities — which are already overloaded with issues of public health and safety — are left to decide how to enforce rules that are mostly unclear.

In Los Angeles, an order signed by Mayor Eric Garcetti was explicit in which businesses can remain open, and included cannabis dispensaries, news media outlets, bicycle and auto repair shops, funeral homes and some farmers’ markets. Gun shops, which have seen a surge in business as the pandemic has spread, will close under the order.

On Friday, Californians kept some semblance of normal routines. In Los Angeles, residents were allowed to walk their dogs or go for a hike in the many canyons and hills around the city. And office workers were allowed to go to their offices on Friday and collect their belongings so they can begin working from home. But in a sprawling city where navigating traffic is a daily headache, for days the city has felt empty, its famous freeways uncluttered, with drivers able to get almost anywhere in less than a half-hour.

Officials said they did not expect to be heavy-handed on enforcement. In Los Angeles, the police can enforce the order by issuing misdemeanor tickets, but the authorities say they are counting on residents to abide by the rules out of social pressure. Mr. Garcetti said any residents who see someone violating the order should take it upon themselves to ask the offender to comply, although he added he is not looking for “tattletales around the city.”

“It’s a very light touch,” he said. “This is on 10 million people to self-enforce.”

Elsewhere in the United States, shelter-at-home rules were not so strict, but they were becoming more so every day — and many businesses and residents were choosing, by choice or by edict, to close up or stay home and take steps to avoid exposure among people.

In Hawaii, Gov. David Ige has issued sweeping directives to close bars and clubs, limit social gatherings to groups of 10, restrict restaurants to takeout service and other measures. He also “strongly encouraged” tourists to postpone vacations for 30 days, and mandated the screening of all passengers getting off cruise ships beginning on Friday.

On Friday afternoon, Mayor LaToya Cantrell of New Orleans issued a “stay home mandate” for her city. “The more people who stay home the more lives that we will save,” she said.

In sparsely populated South Dakota, 14 cases of coronavirus had been discovered as of Friday, with one death attributed to the coronavirus. Schools have been closed, people are working from home and everyone was being encouraged to practice social distancing. But the state government was not forcing new rules on anyone.

In Rapid City, a city of about 75,000 people, some restaurants remained open as usual on Friday, but others, like the Independent Ale House, had chosen to move to a takeout-only model of their own volition.

But there were tensions. Other places remained open, perhaps driven by a streak of American individualism that makes some bristle at the idea of going with the herd. “We’re still very frontier-oriented you know,” said Justin Henrichsen, the ale house owner. “You know, ‘You ain’t going to tell me what to do.’”

Julie Bosman reported from Chicago, and Jesse McKinley from Albany, N.Y. Reporting was contributed by Tim Arango from Los Angeles; Thomas Fuller from Moraga, Calif.; Conor Dougherty from Oakland, Calif.; Richard Fausset from Atlanta; and Mike Baker in Seattle.

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How Joe Biden Ran Up the Score in Virginia

Westlake Legal Group 04turnout-va1-facebookJumbo How Joe Biden Ran Up the Score in Virginia Virginia United States Politics and Government State Legislatures Sanders, Bernard Presidential Election of 2020 Presidential Election of 2016 Politics and Government McAuliffe, Terry Garcetti, Eric M Democratic Party Black People Biden, Joseph R Jr

FALLS CHURCH, Va. — They were disaffected Republicans in affluent Washington suburbs. They were shipyard employees in Norfolk. And they were health care workers in Petersburg.

They all came together on Super Tuesday in an extraordinary surge to the polls in Virginia, propelling former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. to an overwhelming victory in a state that just days earlier had seemed up for grabs. The triumph was part of a 10-state sweep for Mr. Biden that resurrected his presidential candidacy, and established him as the centrist Democrat who would go head-to-head with Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, the standard-bearer of the party’s liberal wing.

In Virginia on Tuesday, it was no contest. Mr. Biden won with 53 percent of the vote, 30 percentage points more than Mr. Sanders. Voter turnout broke a state record for a presidential primary, and was especially high in suburban areas near Washington and near Richmond and Norfolk, as well as in regions with large African-American populations. Petersburg, a mostly-black city south of Richmond, went 75 percent for the former vice president.

The range of support suggested Mr. Biden had the potential to put together a broad coalition across categories of race, gender and age that could be a potent weapon in a race against President Trump.

Former Gov. Terry McAuliffe of Virginia attributed Democratic turnout in the state to deep disgust with the Trump presidency among Democrats and moderate Republicans.

“We have to give tremendous credit to Donald Trump,” Mr. McAuliffe said. “He has been the single biggest driver to the Democratic Party of Virginia. There are a lot of like-minded Republicans who said, ‘I can’t vote for Trump but you got to give me somebody who we can vote for.’ Biden was always at the top of that list.”

That was the motivation for Laura Bligh, a 39-year-old personal trainer from Falls Church. She had planned to back Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, but said she changed her mind on Monday and voted for Mr. Biden.

“My number one priority is to beat Trump and that seemed like the best chance to do it,” Ms. Bligh said while waiting to pick up her daughter outside Shrevewood Elementary in Falls Church on Wednesday afternoon. “When there was still a large pool of candidates, minority options still had a chance.”

Ms. Bligh said she considered her vote not just a repudiation of Mr. Trump, but an effort to block Mr. Sanders, who she predicted would lose in a bid against the president.

In Virginia, exit polls show that Mr. Biden dominated across gender, race and educational lines. He had support from men and women, white and black people, college graduates and non-graduates alike by double-digit margins over Mr. Sanders. In fact, in most of the demographic categories that Mr. Biden won, his share of the vote was larger than Mr. Sanders’s and Ms. Warren’s combined.

Even more significantly, Mr. Biden made major inroads among Mr. Sanders’s core constituencies. For instance, Hispanic voters — who went overwhelmingly for Mr. Sanders in the Nevada caucuses — actually went for Mr. Biden by about 13 percentage points in the Virginia primary. And even among voters who described themselves as very liberal, Mr. Sanders won by only about 4 percentage points.

The only major demographic group that Mr. Sanders won in Virginia was young voters.

Mr. Biden’s triumph here was clearly aided by his romp in the South Carolina primary on Saturday, and a string of endorsements from prominent Democratic politicians in Virginia — Senator Tim Kaine, Representative Bobby Scott and Mr. McAuliffe among them.

Exit polls also showed that Virginia voters coalesced around Mr. Biden’s candidacy practically overnight. Nearly half said they made up their minds in the final days before Tuesday’s contest, with two-thirds of those voters picking Mr. Biden.

The move to Mr. Biden was so swift and pronounced that his allies were claiming for their candidate the kind of surge in new voters that Mr. Sanders himself has promised but failed to deliver.

“The blue wave voters who flipped the House in 2018 and made Nancy Pelosi the speaker of the House, they really turned out in large numbers last night, and we overwhelmingly won their support,” said Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles, a national co-chairman of Mr. Biden’s campaign.

In a conference call with reporters, Mr. Garcetti cited turnout increases of 76 percent in three Virginia congressional districts that include parts of Norfolk and the suburbs of Washington and Richmond.

Over all, 1.3 million voters in Virginia went to the polls on Tuesday, surpassing the votes cast in 2016 by nearly 70 percent and, even more stunningly, breaking a previous Democratic record of 986,000 votes set in 2008, when Barack Obama was on the ballot.

Democratic turnout on Tuesday was up broadly compared with 2016 — with Texas up 49 percent, Tennessee up 38 percent, and Vermont and North Carolina both increasing by 16 percent. Several states that had switched from caucuses to primaries this year — Colorado, Maine, Minnesota and Utah — also saw heavy increases in participation.

Nowhere was the Democratic boom more pronounced than in the tony Northern Virginia suburbs of Washington. Here, among the million-dollar homes populated by lobbyists, corporate lawyers and employees of government contractors, Mr. Biden ran up huge margins over Mr. Sanders and the rest of the Democratic field while turnout in some areas nearly doubled from the party’s 2016 primary.

The region, with its high population of educated professionals, was believed to be a good area for Ms. Warren and Pete Buttigieg, the former mayor of South Bend, Ind., before he ended his campaign on Sunday night.

Dan Helmer, who in November ousted the last remaining Fairfax County Republican in the Virginia General Assembly, said the rush of new voters helped catapult him into office. His victory, completing the Democratic sweep of the Washington suburbs, came after Mr. Trump alienated many of the federal workers and contractors.

“He has converted huge numbers of federal civil servants to Democrats,” said Mr. Helmer, who switched his support from Mr. Buttigieg to Mr. Biden on Monday. “It’s a pocketbook issue for Northern Virginia. Trump has just shook the earth in a way that it’s going to take years for Republicans to recover.”

The Falls Church precinct that voted at Shrevewood Elementary School, steps from a popular cycling trail that some commuters use to get to work in the capital, drew nearly twice as many voters on Tuesday as it did for the 2016 contest between Mr. Sanders and Hillary Clinton. Mrs. Clinton’s margin over Mr. Sanders’s in 2016 in that precinct was 99 votes; Mr. Biden beat Mr. Sanders by 250 votes.

For Sanders supporters, watching the turnout surge he had promised go to Mr. Biden served as a particularly bitter disappointment. They attributed the Vermont senator’s weak showing in the suburbs to moderate Democrats’ coalescing around Mr. Biden faster than progressives did behind Mr. Sanders — though in Fairfax County, Michael R. Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York, won more votes than did Ms. Warren. They also cited the rapid nationalization of a race they had hoped to win through on-the-ground organizing.

“Bernie Sanders, he reached out to Latino voters, Muslims, Arab-American — these were constituencies that he had a significant amount of support here,” said Yasmine Taeb, a Sanders-aligned Democratic National Committee member from Falls Church. “While there was an increase in the number of young voters and minority voters, it still didn’t match up to the older white voters that you traditionally see voting in primaries.”

Jonathan Sokolow, a labor lawyer who is co-chairman of the Sanders campaign in Virginia, said the results in Virginia and elsewhere were not an indication that Mr. Sanders did not have wide support in the party.

“I don’t think it’s correct to say that we don’t have majority support,” Mr. Sokolow said. “We’re fighting to see who is the best candidate to defeat Donald Trump.”

But across the Virginia suburbs, Mr. Sanders’s argument fell flat in the face of Mr. Biden’s late strength.

Marcus Simon, a Democrat who represents Falls Church in the Virginia House of Delegates, said he voted early on Saturday for Ms. Warren. By Tuesday, he had changed his mind, and encouraged his wife to vote for Mr. Biden.

“Electability is something everybody is thinking about and who has the best chance of defeating Trump,” he said. “The idea of risking the nomination to somebody like Bernie Sanders, the concern would be that he wouldn’t have the broad appeal to defeat Donald Trump.”

Tucker Martin, who a decade ago was a top aide to former Gov. Bob McDonnell, Republican of Virginia, appears to fit into this category. Mr. Martin considers himself a Republican, but on Super Tuesday, he cast a ballot for Mr. Biden.

“I am a Never Trumper and I’m out of partisan politics,” Mr. Martin said on Wednesday. “I think for many voters in Virginia, Joe Biden may represent a safe place to go to register their dislike for the current occupant of the White House.”

Maggie Astor and Thomas Kaplan contributed reporting from New York.

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‘Turn Off the Sunshine’: Why Shade Is a Mark of Privilege in Los Angeles

LOS ANGELES — There is no end to the glittering emblems of privilege in this city. Teslas clog the freeways. Affluent families scramble for coveted spots in fancy kindergartens. And up in the hills of Bel-Air, where a sprawling estate just hit the market for a record $225 million, lush trees line the streets, providing welcome relief from punishing heat.

They say the sun has always been the draw of Los Angeles, but these days, shade is increasingly seen as a precious commodity, as the crises of climate change and inequality converge.

Now, city officials, rather than selling sunshine as Los Angeles’s singular attraction, are treating it as a growing crisis.

Using data that overlays areas of intense heat with the busiest public transit routes, the city is rushing to deploy shade to nearly 750 bus stops, using trees, shade sails or umbrellas. In addition, the city has recently hired its first forestry officer, and announced a goal of planting 90,000 shade trees by 2021. As part of this effort, some of the city’s famous palm trees, which have defined the image of the city but do not provide much shade, could be replaced.

“Maybe you haven’t thought about it this way, but shade is an equity issue,” Mayor Eric M. Garcetti said at a recent event on a blazing hot day in South Los Angeles, where he discussed a number of climate initiatives around the city, including creating more shade.

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A tree was planted during a ceremony in sun-strafed South Los Angeles by the city’s tree czar, Rachel Malarich, center left, and Mayor Eric M. Garcetti, right.

“Think about an elderly Angeleno who relies on public transit to get around her neighborhood,” he continued. “Imagine her standing in the blistering sun in the middle of July waiting for the bus, with hot, dark asphalt. She deserves to be every bit as comfortable as her counterpart in another ZIP code in town.”

Drive across the vast space of Los Angeles and the point becomes clear. In wealthy neighborhoods like Bel-Air or Beverly Hills, spot the hulking trees lining canopied streets. In poorer neighborhoods like South Los Angeles, watch as the people waiting for the bus strain for some sliver of escape from the intense heat. They may find it in a small shadow cast by a stop sign, or under a shopkeeper’s awning, or even, sometimes, just from the shade of a person standing in front of them.

In late October, as Los Angeles was facing record heat for the season, the high winds up in the hills and canyons were stirring up wildfires and people were fleeing their homes. Down on the streets of South Los Angeles, it was blazing hot.

On the corner of Sixth Avenue and Jefferson Boulevard, between the Sixth Avenue Elementary School and Lupita’s Market, Gwendolyn Coakley was standing in the narrow shadow of a streetlight, waiting to help schoolchildren cross the street.

It was the only space where she could find a little respite, as temperatures approached triple digits.

“The heat is terrible,” said Ms. Coakley, a crossing guard, as she clutched a bottle of water. “I’m always looking, trying to find something.”

Sunshine was once a salable commodity for Los Angeles, a singular characteristic used to beckon settlers from across America and beyond. Historians have described this time of selling the sun in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as Los Angeles’s period of boosterism.

Led by the city’s chamber of commerce, which distributed pamphlets and books across the country portraying Southern California as a sun-dappled utopia, the marketing effort helped propel Los Angeles’s growth as a major metropolis.

“People came here specifically to chase the sun,” said Christopher Hawthorne, the city’s chief design officer, a newly created position that he took up last year. “And we sold the sunshine as a commodity.”

A street vendor used three umbrellas to shield her quesadilla cart in Westlake. Chinatown in Downtown Los Angeles.

As the world warms, the issue of shade has drawn more attention from urban planners. The writer Sam Bloch, in an article in Places Journal this year that focused on Los Angeles, called shade “an index of inequality, a requirement for public health, and a mandate for urban planners and designers.”

Mr. Hawthorne, a former architectural critic for The Los Angeles Times, has been thinking for years about the city’s public spaces and the lack of shade as a measure of inequality. When he talks about the subject, he likes to invoke the title of a 1942 book of short stories about Los Angeles by the writer Timothy Turner: “Turn Off the Sunshine.”

“We can all relate to that title today,” he said, at the recent event where Mr. Garcetti appeared. “There are times all of us in Los Angeles wish we could turn off the sunshine, and there are more and more of those days every year as a result of climate change.”

In an interview, Mr. Hawthorne said, “We have pockets of beautiful urban design and beautiful stretches of shade, but it’s definitely fair to say that it has not been distributed in an equitable way.”

Angelenos high on the income ladder go everywhere in air-conditioned cars, leaving the city’s buses and baking sidewalks largely to those on the lower economic rungs. Citing the impact of climate change, Mr. Hawthorne said: “This city is noticeably less hospitable to pedestrians now than it was when I got here in 2004. So 15 years has changed this conversation.” Mr. Hawthorne has been leading the effort to bring shade to nearly 750 bus stops, utilizing data that overlays the hottest areas of the city with the locations of the busiest bus stops.

Researchers at U.C.L.A. have forecast that Los Angeles is likely to see a sharp increase in the number of days of extreme heat — defined as 95 degrees or higher. Downtown Los Angeles currently experiences about seven days of extreme heat per year, but that figure could rise to 22 by 2050 and to more than 50 days by the end of the century, according to forecasts. (Of course, temperatures don’t need to soar above 95 degrees for a lack of shade to be a burden on the city’s poor.)

Like Mr. Hawthorne, Rachel Malarich, whom Mr. Garcetti hired earlier this year as Los Angeles’s first forestry officer, is trying to bring shade to the city’s underserved communities, particularly in South Los Angeles and East Los Angeles, by planting more trees.

“These communities should have access to the same resources other communities have,” she said. “I don’t want a bunch of small trees. We need to find spaces for big trees.”

Still, in some communities that have historically been neglected by the city, new trees can be a tough sell. Residents complain that the city has planted trees in the past and then failed to trim them, creating neighborhood hazards and causing injuries.

The lack of trees in some poorer communities is also connected to a history of abusive policing. For years, the city kept tree growth to a minimum in some neighborhoods because police officers were worried that trees could be places to stash drugs and guns.

In an interview, Ms. Malarich showed a map of the city’s tree canopy. Wealthy areas of West Los Angeles and the Los Feliz neighborhood are dark green, with a tree canopy of more than 35 percent. South Los Angeles, by contrast, is shaded lightly, with just 10 percent to 12 percent tree cover.

Ms. Malarich said trees are also a public health issue, citing studies showing that more trees in a community correlates with lower asthma rates, reduced hospital visits during heat waves and improved mental health. “All our communities should have access to those benefits,” she said.

Los Angeles, with its many different climate zones, can host countless types of trees, Ms. Malarich said, and she is drawing on several books and resources, such as “A Californian’s Guide to the Trees Among Us,” to decide which trees to plant and where.

Deploying an umbrella against the sun, not the rain, in MacArthur Park. Waiting to see a comedy show in MacArthur Park as the sun beats down.

And what about Los Angeles’s famous palm trees, which are essential to the city’s image of itself but do not provide much cover? There may be fewer of them in the future, she said, because as some palm trees reach the end of their life cycle, they may not be replaced.

Still, “palm trees are important for culturally significant spaces,” she said.

The attention given to creating more shade is part of a broader effort by Los Angeles, Mr. Hawthorne said, to “draw people back to the public realm,” in a city famously attached to the automobile.

“If we can’t turn off the sunshine, at least we can find respite and refuge, and a sense that the city increasingly is designed for all of us,” he said.

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